1. ANALYSIS OF ECG ACQUISITION AND TRANSMISSION OF THE ECG SIGNAL USING GPRS TECHNOLOGY
Authors- VINOD KR. MISHRA, ANUPAM AGARWAL
Abstract- The purpose of this paper this project is to development of raw ECG processing system which is intelligent enough to process ECG signal automatically of cardiac patients. It also reduces the component count and thus, which reduce the hardware cost in ECG acquisition filtering technique in software. It also automatically detects the P, Q, R, and S waves and QRS complex. Automatic computation of signal to noise ratio of input raw signal & filter the ECG signal by using Butterworth filter is also done. We use the industry Standard language MATLAB for its implementation. It automatic computes heart rate. It also gives the facility to the user to send the ECG signal by taking a snapshot to doctor E‐mail on basis of time scheduling or heart activity by using a GPRS Technology. This work helps the person who lives in rural area or the people who are case sensitive as they can use it so that they do not need to travel.
Index Terms: ECG signal, MATLAB, Butterworth filter, GPRS technology
2. ENHANCEMENT OF SHELF LIFE OF VEGETABLES BY ADVANCE SOLAR PASSIVE COOL CHAMBER
Authors- CHANDAN KUMAR, Dr.P.B.L.CHAURASIA,HARI KUMAR SINGH,Dr. S.S.YADAV
Abstract- Fruits and vegetables get deteriorated very fast and consequently reduce the shelf life after harvesting. The present work is devoted to prevent spoilage using advance techniques in passive cool chamber. The passive cool chamber is most suitable for hot and dry places. This article presents the boot option used in the solar passive cool chamber. Equipment operates on the principle of direct evaporative cooling & increasing the relative humidity and reducing temperature inside the structure. The passive cool chamber preserves the vegetables very fresh and increasing shelf life. It can be successfully used for short term preservation after harvesting of vegetables. The temperature in the chamber has been found 17‐19 ̊c as compared with surrounding condition, while the humidity maintained a higher level than 85%. The weight loss under present study in tomato & radish was noticed prominent as compared to other vegetables. The water requirement was notice 45 to 50 liter.
KEYWORDS: ‐ Deterioration, Shelf Life, Evaporative Cooling, Weight Loss, Relative Humidity, Shrinkage.
3. PREPARATION AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK DRINKS FROM MITHUN MILK
Authors- MEYIE U MERO, NAZRUL HAQUE, R.N. SHUKLA
Abstract- The present study was focused on probiotic which was used for the fermentation of mithun milk with three strains incorporated and with the differences in fermentation period of four different times. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. Beneficial aspects of probiotics include alleviation of lactose intolerance, control of diarrhoea, urogenital infection, reduction in cholesterol level and relief from irritable bowel syndrome, antioxidant potential, and pathogen inhibition. Products with or processed with probiotic are accepted as a natural way to preserve food and promote health. This paper aimed to review the recent data in regard to the role of probiotic in the preservation of foods by fermentation and study its physicochemical properties and shelf life of the mithun milk. The physicochemical properties of the probiotic fermented milks were observed and studied and the higher the lactic content is the lower protein content as the protein decreases in low pH as when the lactic acid increases, the acidity increases and protein loses its tertiary bonds and fails to form more bonds and hence the shelf life was observed to be highest in the sample T9,T10,T11,and T12as the protein content is the lowest in those samples as protein is a complex organic compound which may favour the microbial growth and activities and the longevity in shelf life found in the sample T9,T10,T11,and T12.
Key words: Probiotic, Fermented Products, Fermented Milk Drinks.
4. EFFECT OF MOBILE PHONE RADIATION ON HUMAN BODY
Authors- RAHUL KAUSHIK, P P PATHAK
Abstract- The electro‐magnetic field strength and specific absorption rate have been calculated in close proximity to mobile phones base stations in this paper. The induced Specific absorption rate inside human body tissues, particularly in fat and muscles due to mobile phone base station frequency (900‐1200 MHz) has been evaluated. The calculated values of Specific absorption rate have been compared with standard limits given by various international authorities like Federal Communication Commission (FCC), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA/INIRC), International Commission on Non‐ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), etc.
Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation, Specific absorption rate, Human body tissues
5. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS IN BRICK MASONRY BLOCK USING FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER
Authors- AVDHESH KUMAR MEENA , MAYANK VARSHNEY, MEENU VARSHNEY, SUMITRA KUMARI MEENA
Abstract- The Brick Masonry structures are more susceptible to earthquakes and their unstable assessment remains a challenge. This study shows improvement in compressive strength and displacement in brick masonry under unstable loading, and to work out their safety. The focus in this research is to find out strength of the brick masonry blocks using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials throughout unstable impact and without using FRP. The masonry blocks plastered with fiber reinforced polymer(FRP), tested above the load carrying capability & stability, throughout unstable impact in comparison to the unreinforced brick masonry block. Thus the load carrying capability is considerably improved in the FRP plastered brick masonry. A comparison is also done between English Bond & Rat trap bond type of brick masonry.
6. DESIGN OF A SEIRPINSKI GASKET FRACTAL ANTENNA WITH THE DEFECTIVE GROUND STRUCTURE AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF SPECIFIC ABSORPTION RATE FOR SKIN IMPLANTS
Authors- Ms. X. MAICHAEL MADONA, Mrs. R. BRINDA
Abstract- The development of Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) is one of the most important aspects towards establishing an advanced health care system. Nowadays, the devices which are designed to monitor physiological data inside the human body have great promises to provide major contributions to disease prevention, diagnosis and therapy thus reducing hospitalization terms and improving the patient’s quality of life. The proposed work is to design a Seirpinski gasket fractal antenna with Defective Ground Structure aiming at the reduction of Specific Absorption Rate for Skin Implants. The project is structured by the way that the Seirpinski gasket acting as the radiating element which helps in attaining the multiband behaviour of the antenna. By using the fractal structure the antenna size is reduced considerably. Periodic defects at the ground helps in side lobes suppression so that the antenna can radiate only in the intended direction which is very much desirable for a Skin Implantable Antenna. Their performance has been analyzed in terms of Specific Absorption Rate, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio, Return loss and Radiation efficiency by placing the antenna inside the three layered skin model. The antenna operates at ISM band of 2.45GHz and MICS band of 402MHz so that when 2.45GHz is unavailable as it is used for other miscellaneous applications like Bluetooth, Wi‐Fi etc. This antenna can use the MICS band which is exclusive for medical implants reducing the interference. The proposed work fulfills the requirements given by the International Telecommunication Union Standards for a Skin Implantable Antenna.
Index Terms:. Defective ground structure, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), Seirpinski gasket fractal, ISM band, MICS band, International Telecommunication Union Regulation Standards (ITU‐R).
7. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF QAM IN COOPERATIVE COMMUNICATION USING AF‐IPS SCHEME
Authors- TUSHAR AWASTHI, ANUPAM AGARWAL, ANOOP SINGHAL
Abstract- Continuous improvement is closely related to performance measurement in Digital Communication (DC). This performance is measured in terms of outage probability, Bit Error Rate (BER) etc. for all traditional digital communication systems as well as modern day DC system models of Cooperative and Green Communications, 3G and 4G wireless systems. A generalized Hyper geometric function 2F1(a,b,c,z) is a convergent form of Hyper geometric series and solution of second order linear Ordinary Differential Equation(ODE). Now‐a‐days most of the derived numerical result of BER, outage probability etc. are expressed in terms of hyper geometric functions as computation of these functions becomes easy by using software tool like Mathematica. In this paper, ABEP of restangular QAM is derived using these softwares in terms of Hypergeometric functions.
Keywords: Average Symbol Error Rate (ASER), Dual‐Hop Relay, Rayleigh Fading, Amplify and Forward‐Average Power Scaling (AF‐APS), Amplify and Forward‐Instantaneous.
8. KINETICS FOR REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION THROUGH ADSORPTION FROM MOUSAMBI PEEL, GROUND NUT SHELL AND NEEM LEAVES
Authors- TEJ PRATAP SINGH, C.B.MAJUMDER
Abstract- Three bio‐adsorbent were prepared from the peel of mousambi, ground nut and neem leaves. Adsorption of fluoride onto these bio‐adsorbent was investigated. The effects of different and important parameters were studied to find the best operating conditions for maximum removal of fluoride. It also noted the effect of contact time in the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution at neutral pH. Five kinetic models; the pseudo first and second order equations, pore diffusion, intra‐particle diffusion and elovich equation were selected to follow adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride onto adsorbent could be described by pseudo second order equation. Kinetic parameters like rate constant, equilibrium adsorption capacities and correlation coefficients for each kinetic equation were calculated and discussed. The good fitting of kinetic data to pore diffusion and elovich equation indicate that pore diffusion plays a vital role in controlling the rate of the reactions.
Keywords:‐Adsorption kinetics, adsorption, Bio‐adsorbent
9. INTRODUCTION TO GESTURE CONTROL ROBOT
Authors- DEEPAK KUMAR, SHRUTI CHOUDHARY, AJAY KASANA
Abstract- Gesture Controlled Robot is a robot which can be controlled by simple gestures. The user just needs to wear a gesture device which includes a sensor. The sensor will record the movement of hand in a specific direction which will result in the movement of the robot in the respective direction. The robot and the Gesture device are connected wirelessly via radio waves. The wireless communication enables the user to interact with the robot in a more friendly way.
10. CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE USING SPACE VECTOR PWM
Authors- SYED MAHAMOOD ALI, Dr. MOHAMMAD HASEEB KHAN, Dr. ARSHIA AZAM
Abstract- In this paper speed of induction motor is controlled which is fed from three phase bridge inverter. In this paper the speed of an induction motor can be varied by varying input Voltage or frequency or both. Variable voltage and variable frequency for Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) is invariably obtained from a three‐phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). Voltage and frequency of inverter can be easily controlled by using PWM techniques, which is a very important aspect in the application of ASDs. A number of PWM techniques are there to obtain variable voltage and variable frequency supply such as PWM, SPWM, SVPWM to name a few, among the various modulation strategies SVPWM is one of the most efficient techniques as it has better performance and output voltage is similar to sinusoidal. In SVPWM the modulation index in linear region will also be high when compared to other Modulation techniques, and DC link voltage utilization in space Vector PWM technique is 15% more compared to Sinusoidal PWM.
Index Terms: Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD); Voltage source inverter (VSI), Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM), Space Vector PWM (SVPWM).
11. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF RC BUILDINGS WITH VERTICAL IRREGULARITIES SUBJECTED TO BIAXIAL EXCITATION
Authors- Dr. MOHD.HAMRAJ, MOHAMMED MOIZ KHAN
Abstract- Reinforced concrete multi‐storied buildings are very complex to model as structural systems for analysis. The current version of the IS: 1893‐2002 requires that practically all multistoried buildings be analyzed as three‐dimensional systems. This is due to the fact that the buildings have generally irregularities in plan or elevation or in both and later that may have a detrimental influence and effectiveness on seismic performance itself. Seismic analysis is generally performed by creating a structural model which is excited with forces in two orthogonal directions separately i.e. they are subjected to uniaxial excitation. But an actual earthquake will have its effect in both the directions simultaneously (Biaxial excitation). Limited research has been carried out on effect, of such biaxial excitation on vertical irregular buildings. The study as a whole makes an effort to evaluate the effect of vertical irregularities on RC buildings subjected to biaxial excitation. The objective of this work is to carry out Nonlinear Time history Analysis (THA) of vertically irregular RC building frames.For the purpose of the work, comparative study has been done with regular shear wall to analyze the effect of vertical irregularities (irregular shear wall and soft first storey) on low‐rise and high‐rise symmetric buildings. The symmetry is imposed to avoid the torsional effects and enhance the irregularities in elevation.The analysis engine used for the analysis and design is ETABS version 13. In the study, base shear, story displacement and story drifts of the three structures were studied; one with irregular shear wall in elevation (Building B), the other with irregular shear wall in core of the building (Building C) and the third with soft first storey (Building D). The results obtained were compared with those obtained from the structure with regular shear wall (Building A).The earthquake demand was obtained from a time response dynamic analysis using acceleration record from the Bhuj Earthquake of January 26, 2001. The analytical results show that there is a reduction in base shear by 39% and 46% of buildings B and C respectively and the story displacement is increased by 14% and 29% respectively when they are compared with the building A. There is a lot of increase in story drift by 66% and 84% in both building B and C respectively when it is compared with building A.The Building D with soft first storey has 19% reduction in base shear when it is compared with the Building A. Also, there is large increase in story displacement and story drifts of the building by 75% and 67% respectively when compared with Building A. The results illustrated that significant effect of the vertical irregularities was observed on the storey drift, base shear, storey displacement of low rise and high rise symmetric buildings.
Index Terms: Vertical Geometric Irregularity; Stiffness Irregularity; Biaxial Base excitation; Nonlinear Time history analysis.
12. FUZZY LOGIC FOR SPEED CONTROLLING OF STEPPER MOTOR
Authors- ANCHAL KATIYAR
Abstract- Stepping motors are widely used in robotics and in the numerical control of machine tools where they have to perform high precision positioning operations. Nevertheless, the variations of the mechanical configuration of the drive, which are common to these two applications, can lead to a loss of synchronism for high stepping rates. Moreover, the classical open‐loop speed control is weak and a closed‐loop control becomes necessary. In this paper, the fuzzy logic principle is applied to control the speed of a stepping motor drive with feedback. Speed control of DC Motor is vital in many applications. In this paper, an effort has been made to control the speed of the DC motor using fuzzy logic control (FLC) based on Lab VIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) program. Lab VIEW provides a graphical programming environment suited for high level or system‐level design. The fuzzy logic controller designed to apply the required control voltage that sent to dc motor based on fuzzy rule base of motor speed error (e) and change of speed error (Ce). In this paper results of FLC, PI and PID Controller are compared. The simulation results demonstrate that the response of DC motor with FLC show a satisfactory well damped control performance.
Key words: Conventional controller, FLC, VHDL, FPGA
13. VHDL IMPLEMENTATION OF FLOATING POINT MULTIPLIER BASED ON VEDIC MULTIPLICATION TECHNIQUE
Authors- PRAGATI SACHAN
Abstract- In this paper, IEEE floating point format was a standard format used in all processing elements since Binary floating point numbers multiplication is one of the basic functions used in digital signal processing (DSP) application. In that work VHDL implementation of Floating Point Multiplier using ancient Vedic mathematics is presented. The idea for designing the multiplier unit is adopted from ancient Indian mathematics “Vedas”. The Urdhvatriyakbhyam sutra will be used for the multiplication of Mantissa. The underflow and over flow cases will be handled. The inputs to the multiplier in 32 bit format. The multiplier is designed in VHDL or VERILOG and simulated using ModelSIM.
Key words: Vedic Mathematics, Urdhva‐triyakbhyam sutra, Floating Point multiplier, FPGA.
14. IMPLEMENTING THE SUPPORTING PRIVACY PROTECTION IN CUSTOMIZED NET SEARCH
Authors- N. RAJENDRAN, N. PRAKASH
Abstract- Personalized internet search (PWS) has in contestible its effectiveness in up the standard of varied search services on the net. However, evidences show that users’ reluctance to disclose their personal data throughout search has become a significant barrier for the wide proliferation of PWS. We have a tendency to study privacy protection in PWS applications that model user preferences as hierarchic user profiles. We have a tendency to propose a PWS framework known as UPS which will adaptively generalize profiles by queries whereas respecting user specified privacy necessities. Our runtime generalization aims at hanging a balance between 2 prophetic metrics that judge the utility of personalization and also the privacy risk of exposing the unrealized profile. We have a tendency to gift 2 greedy algorithms, specifically GreedyDP and GreedyIL, for runtime generalization. We have a tendency to additionally give an internet prediction mechanism for deciding whether or not personalizing a question is helpful. Intensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework. The experimental results additionally reveal that GreedyIL considerably outperforms GreedyDP in terms of potency.
Index Terms‐ Privacy protection, personalized web search, utility, risk, profile.
15. DESIGN OF MICROWAVE FILTER USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUE
Authors- NEEROJ PRADHAN, SHUDHANSU MATHUR
Abstract- In this paper, innovative method for the design of wide band microwave filter using digital signal processing has been described. It is mainly based on the conversion of microwave specifications to the digital specifications, where with the help of IIRLPNORM algorithm available in MATLAB digital filter design technique is applied. Thus, Poles and Zeroes are calculated by the help of this digital signal processing technique. Now using fractional expansion method the values of lumped element have been realized. Their measured response and design simulation are presented here.
Index Terms: digital signal processing, filter, lumped element, and IIRLPNORM
16. STUDY OF THE IODINATION OF INDOLE‐3‐BUTYRIC ACID BY AQUEOUS IODINE USING HYDRODYNAMIC VOLTAMMETRY
Authors- RAJENDRA P.YADAV, BHARAT B. BAHULE, VITTHAL T. BORKAR, VIJAY T. DANGAT, KANCHAN G. SHINDE
Abstract- The fast kinetics of the iodination of indole‐3‐ butyric acid (3‐IBA) in aqueous medium by molecular iodine at 7 pH has been studied using hydrodynamic voltammetry in the present study. The reaction is very rapid and this special technique has been employed in these investigations. The reaction is found to be of the second order and the specific reaction rate has been evaluated as 590 M−1 s−1 at 22.0 0C. The frequency factor, energy of activation and entropy change in the reaction are evaluated as 3.48 x 10 9 M−1s−1, 38.3 kJ mole−1 and −243.1 J mol −1 K−1respectively. These thermodynamic data are used to elucidate the reactivity of the heterocycle under study on a quantitative scaffold in terms of the steric compulsions in the reaction dynamics. The heterocycle chosen for this study has pharmacodynamic significance as it is a component of the precursors of several biologically important drug molecules.
Keywords: Hydrodynamic voltammetry, Indole‐3‐ butyric acid, Molecular iodine.
17. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT TO DETECT THE LUNG CANCER AT EARLY STAGE USING MEDIAN FILTER
Authors- J. M. DURGE, PROF. N. P. BOBADE, DR. N. N. MHALA
Abstract- Lung cancer which is among the five main types of cancer is a leading one to overall cancer mortality. Cancer is a serious health problem among various kinds of diseases. World Health Organization (WHO) reports that worldwide 7.6 million deaths are caused by cancer each year. Uncontrollable cell development in the tissues of the lung is called as lung cancer. Lung nodule is an abnormality that leads to lung cancer, characterized by a small round or oval shaped growth on the lung which appears as a white shadow in the CT scan. These uncontrollable cells restrict the growth of healthy lung tissues. If not treated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in the nearby tissue called metastasis and, form tumors. In order to preserve the life of the people who are suffered by the lung cancer disease, it should be pre‐diagnosed. The overall 5‐year survival rate for lung cancer patients increases from 14 to 49% if the disease is detected in time. So there is a need of pre diagnosis system for lung cancer disease which should provide better results.
Index Terms: Lung Cancer Detection system, Median Filter, Watershed Segmentation, Feature Extraction
18. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARD
Authors- AMOL KHARAT, SUNIL INGOLE, VISHAL MESHRAM
Abstract- In recent years, electrical equipment are drastically developing and miniaturizing. Higher integration of semiconductor devices leads to these developments. On the other hand, higher integration of semiconductor devices on one chip and higher integration of electrical devices in one package means increase of heat generation density. The operation of integrated circuits (IC) at elevated temperature is a major cause of failures in electronic devices and a critical problem in developing more advanced electronic packages. This is because the life expectancy of electronic components reduces exponentially as the operating temperature rises. One such example of an electronic device is the electronic control unit (ECU) in automotives whose function has increased and is expected to further rise in the foreseeable future. Thermal design of vehicle controller is an important element in the total design process, because of the impact of temperature on performance and reliability. A thermally well designed electrical component applied in a thermally poor designed controller, will still result in a poor total design. And it is important that thermal design on controller should be included as early as possible in the overall design process.
Keywords‐ Electronic Control Unit, Computational Fluid Dynamics, ANSYS Icepack, Temperature Distribution, Electronic packages.
19. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MINIATURE CYLINDRICAL PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR CONCENTRATOR
Authors- SAI PHANINDRA DINESH KAKARLAMUDI, BHARATH REDDY KALSANI, KESHAV JHA, PRANAY KUMAR GANDLA, MANOJ MALAE, SONU GUPTA
Abstract- Over the last few decades, there have been significant changes in the way people use the world’s energy resources. There has been an increasing effort from governments, industry and academic institutions to find alternative sources of energy and to improve energy efficiency. This, plus an ever growing pressure from different sectors of society to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, has motivates the development of emerging technologies to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and the optimization of existing systems in order to minimize energy consumption. Solar energy is one of the alternative energies that has vast potential. It is estimated that the earth receives approximately 1000W/m2 amount of solar irradiation in a day. There are two ways to produce electricity from the sun. First is by using the concentrating solar thermal system. This is done by focusing the heat from the sun to produce steam. The steam will drove a generator to produce electricity. This type of configuration is normally employed in solar power plants. The other way of generating electricity is through a photovoltaic (PV) cell. This technology will convert the sunlight directly into electricity. Some of the applications of solar energy are power plants, Homes, Commercial use, Ventilation system, Power pump, Swimming pools, Solar lighting, Solar cars and Remote applications. These are the few above applications where the use of Solar Energy can be used. So, there is a need to concentrate Solar Energy. Here, we are constructing a cylindrical parabolic solar concentrator for concentrating solar energy .The concentrated energy is used for heating the water and thus analyzing the inlet and outlet temperatures of water. A solar concentrator is a device that uses parabolic mirrors to redirect and concentrate the sun’s rays onto a small focal point. They are used in many different applications where solar thermal energy is involved.
Index Terms: Solar energy, Solar concentrator, Parabolic concentrator
20. CONFINEMENT LOSS REDUCTION IN PCF USING HIGH INDEX DOPED RODS
Authors- NAVED SIDDIQUI, MRS.SANDHYA SHARMA
Abstract- PCF with novel design for reduction of confinement loss is proposed. Proposed fibers consist of hexagonal arrangement of high index doped rods and with low index cladding and high index core. This Fiber is assumed to confine light by frustrated tunneling of light and by Guided mode resonance. This is different from TIR mechanism of light guidance in fiber. Through Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations under transparent boundary conditions the proposed design is shown to give satisfactory results. Birefringence is also calculated that also fulfill the theoretical aspects for design of a practical fiber.
Index Terms: Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF), Finite difference time domain (FDTD), confinement loss, Birefringence and Guided mode resonance (GMR).
21. DEVELOPMENT AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATERMELON BLENDS WITH BEETROOT JUICE DURING STORAGE
Authors- ANKUSH D JUMDE, R. N. SHUKLA, GOUSODDIN
Abstract- The watermelon juice (Citrulluslanatus) and beetroot juice (Beta vulgaris) were formulatedto a blend in different proportion (in v/v)asT1 (80:20), T2 (75:25), T3 (70:30), T4 (65:35) and T0 (100:00) respectively. The standard sample (T0) was made without blending these two juices (100% standard watermelon juice). Physico‐chemical and sensory analysis were evaluated. Marginal changes in pH, total soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C .The results of the analysis of Vitamin C content (mg/100 ml of juice) gave 125.26 in standard watermelon juice,106.89in T1, 102.31 in T2, 97.68 in T3, 93.12 in T4 respective.The acidity increased (0.25‐0.33) and pH of the juice decreased progressively during the storage period. This may be due to the fermentation and presence of lactic acid reducing micro‐ organism. The mean overall acceptability scores up to 8 for T2 samples in it up to 25% beetroot juice were incorporated. Microbial analysis (total plate count and yeast and mould count) was carried out from zero day to 30 days with 10 days interval and shows that microbial activity was steadily increases till 30 days of storage to 13 x 102increased.Heat pasteurization (80ºC for 3 min.) was more effective for inactivating the microbial flora. However the shelf life of juice was established within 30 days.
Keywords: Beetroot Juice, Watermelon Juice, Blends, Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Analysis, Self Life.
22. STUDY ON DRYING AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAY AND MICROWAVE DRIED GUAVA SLICES
Authors- REEMA KSHETRIMAYUM, R. N. SHUKLA, ATULANAND MISHRA
Abstract- Uniform sizes of guava (Psidiumguajava L.) in India is considered to be most popular fruit and it is given the name of apple or tropical parts. This is the fourth fruit after mango, banana, and citrus which is most important in area and production. Now guava is considered to be an excellent trade fruit. It is quite hard, multi-breeding,fruiting and even higher fruitful without more care. The Higher water content of most fruits makes them highly perishable and is responsible for postharvest losses in storage, handling and transportation, resulting in economic losses. Transformation to a stable product is thus necessary either by canning, freezing or drying. Unblanched, blanched and blanched with KMS samples were dried at three different Powers (20W, 40W, 60W). Dried samples were evaluated for quality attributes, viz. Vitamin C retention, rehydration ratio, moisture content and drying rate. The samples were heat sealed in high density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature. The samples were analysed for quality attributes after drying. Results indicated that the initial average moisture content of guava slices was 1389.08% (db). The initial moisture content of pre-treated samples had highest at 20, 40 and 60 W. Drying rate of KMS blanched sample had highest at 20 and 60 W but at 40 W drying rate of blanched sample had highest. Moisture loss increased from guava with increased in power of microwave and time of drying. The pre-treated samples were taken shorter drying time than unblanched sample. Rehydration ratio was found acceptable those samples which were dried at 40W with KMS blanched sample. Rehydration ratio of KMS blanched samples was found 5.056,7.622 and 5.566 at 20, 40 and 60W respectively. Ascorbic acid content was found acceptable at 20W KMS blanched sample had highest ascorbic acid content 200mg/100g. At 40 and 60W the ascorbic acid content of KMS blanched samples were 143.33 and 116.66mg/100g respectively with desirability factor of 0.50
Keywords: Guava, Drying, Vitamin C, Rehydration ratio, Drying rate and Moisture content
23. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTIN DERIVED FROM PAPAYA (Carica papaya Linn.) PEEL
Authors- UZMA ALTAF, GENITHA IMMANUEL, FARHEENA IFTIKHAR
Abstract- The aim of study was to extract pectin from papaya peel and study its physico-chemical characteristics. Pectin was extracted using hydrochloric acid and citric acid, at different time, temperature and pH combinations. Extraction was done at temperatures 60°C, 70°C and 80°C for time 30 mins, 45 mins and 60 mins, and pH 2, 2.5 and 3.0 respectively. Using hydrochloric acid, the yield of pectin was higher (ranging from 2.8% -16%) and the yield of pectin using citric acid varied from 1.9% – 9.9%. It was also observed that with decrease in pH the pectin yield increased. Maximum yield was obtained at pH 2.0 – 6.5-16% in case of HCl and 5.4-9.9% for citric acid extracted pectin. This may be due the reason that with decrease in pH the number of Hydrogen ions increases resulting in the neutralization of more carboxylic groups of pectin and higher pectin yield; and also that with increase in extraction time and temperature, the pectin yield increased. Highest yield (16%) was obtained at pH 2.0, for extraction time 60 min and extraction temperature 80°C, in case of HCl and for citric acid extracted pectin highest yield (9.9%) was obtained at pH 2.0, for 60 min time of extraction and extraction temperature 80°C. The characterization of the extracted pectin was done by calculating the ash content, moisture content, equivalent weight, methoxyl content, anhydrouronic acid content and degree of esterification, which varied from 7.3%-9.67%, 4.8-7.2%, 455.1-912.17, 6.2-7.5%, 84.3-72.5% and 49.2-53.4%, respectively, using citric acid and hydrochloric acid.
Index terms: Papaya peel pectin, extraction, characterization, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, equivalent weight, methoxyl content, anhydrouronic acid content, degree of esterification.
24. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF COOKIES FORTIFIED WITH DATE PASTE (Phoenix dactylifera L)
Authors- FARHEENA IFTIKHAR, AVANISH KUMAR, UZMA ALTAF
Abstract- Fruits of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera .L) are consumed throughout the world and are a vital component of the diet in most Arabian countries. Dates have less fat content, hence heart patients can consume dates as such or their products.Dates contain high amount of dietary fibre. This fibre helps to control diabetes by decreasing the blood glucose levels and helps to lower the blood cholesterol level. . Baked products are the most important sources of dietary fibre in the total food consumption. The effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with date palm paste on qualitative and quantitative properties of cookies was studied .Levels of date paste used were 10%, 15%, and 20%.Qualitative (ash, moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and calorific value) and qualitative properties (colour, texture, taste and flavour) were assessed. Results obtained indicated that ash and fibre contents gradually increased from 0.35% in T0 to 0.75% in T3 and 1.24% in T0 to 2.26% in T3 respectively due to increase in mineral content by addition of date paste. Crude fibre and protein showed a slight increase with increasing date paste ratio but carbohydrates(T0 =76.09 to T3=70.75) and overall calorific value(T0=384.85 to T3=377.86) decreased simultaneously. Organoleptic properties revealed that highly acceptable cookie could be obtained when 15% of date paste was used in the formulation. Calorific value evaluation showed that calorific value decreases from 384.85 in T0 to 377.86 in T3 with increase in date paste concentration.
Index Terms: Wheat Flour; Wheat Flour: Palm Date Paste, Organoleptic quality, Calorific value
25. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN HYBRID ELECTRIC SHIP
Authors- KULDEEP SHARMA, VISHAL SHARMA
Abstract- Dc Hybrid Power Systems are of enthusiasm for future fuel productive, low outflow vessels. The half breed electrical boat is mainly snared into power and afterward there’s constantly a yearning for the capacity. Batteries, PV-board, Fuel-Cells (FC) and Ultra-Capacitors (UCs), are getting utilized for arranged HES as an electrical power supply or as capacity unit. The point of paper is adding to a vitality administration method inside which half breed electrical boat uses the sources in keeping with the necessities. This will expand the intensity of half and half electrical ship and decreases fuel utilization and undesirable emanation. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) in energy components and PV board is done by utilizing Mathematical Logic (Fuzzy Logic). Diesel generator performs the vitality administration strategy once all the inverse sources aren’t being used. We are raising the consequences of yield voltage, support gadget, output of battery by utilization of Mathematical Logic (Fuzzy Logic) rules.
Keywords: MPPT, FUZZY.
26. COMPARISON OF SINGLE-CORE AND DUAL-CORE PROCESSOR PERFORMANCE ON MPSoC
Authors- KUMAR SATYAM, VIKASH KUMAR LAL KARN, NEETI VIJAYVARGIYA, JAYA GUPTA
Abstract- This paper presents overall performance of Dual core processor with the low-power cache memory. We are present an important area in VLSI design architecture which is a parallel processing in MPSoC. Multiple processes works on the SIMD technique in MPSoC. The Dual core processor uses new techniques to reduce power consumption and increase the speed comparatively single core processor. Since memories are gain access to sequentially, it implements a single address bus for read and writes operation with stored data.
In the Simulation on Xilinx, I will compare the different types of parameter such as power consumption, area, execution time and overall performance of Single core processor and dual core processor. Single core processor is in individual memory of 128 byte and Dual core processor is in shared memory of 128 byte.
Index Terms- MPSoC, ALU, Xilinx, Single and Double Core Processor.
27. AN IMPLEMENTATION OF ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD USING VHDL
Authors- YOGYATA SINGH
Abstract- The term “Rijndael” has been used for the specification in advanced encryption standard for the encryption of electronic data. The Rijndael Algorithm defined by AES is a symmetric-key algorithm, means for encrypting and decrypting the data the same key is used. This algorithm uses different key sizes 128,192,256 bits and it is suitable for both software and hardware. A FPGA-based Implementation of work includes both encryption and decryption process will be operated with key size 256 bits and the AES encrypted and decrypted both devices are integrated. The key size 256 bits and the plain text 128 bits (input block size) can be provided into the encrypted device and gives the cipher text as a result. In decrypted device, this cipher text used as an input and same key size provided to get the desired result. The AES-256 is design by VHDL (very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language). The design simulation and synthesized is done using Xilinx ISE (13.3) EDA software. In this paper, AES-256 is implemented and the synthesis results are found in terms of the use I/Os, lookup table, flip flops, the number of slices and the design is optimizing in terms of and memory and speed and timing constraints.
Index Terms: AES, Rijndael Algorithm, FPGA, VHDL, Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption.
28. FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF BIT PLANE ENTROPY ENCODER FOR 3‐D DWT BASED VIDEO COMPRESSION
Authors- GOPIKA G NAIR, SABI S.
Abstract- In video processing, energy efficient real time video compression and transmission finds numerous applications. In this paper entropy coding is performed for video compression based on three-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Currently the most popular video coding approach is an extension of H.264/SVC standard. It provides high compression efficiency due to motion compensation and inter-layer prediction. But, its implementation in a mobile device is a difficult task because of high computational complexity of motion estimation and inter-layer prediction. Therefore, in this paper a scalable video codec based on 3-D DWT and simple bit-plane entropy coding of wavelet subband matrices is proposed. The proposed entropy coder uses zero-run Levenstein coder and Adaptive binary range coder. For zero-run-length compression, Levenstein codes are used. Therefore, computation complexity of this coder is significantly less than bit-plane arithmetic coder in JPEG2000 standard and entropy encoder in 3-D SPIHT algorithm.
Index terms: Entropy coding; 3-D DWT; low complexity video coding.
29. DE‐EMBEDDING OF TEST FIXTURE: A NECESSARY STEP IN POST SILICON VALIDATION FOR ACCURATE CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH SPEED DEVICES
Authors- SURENDRA KUMAR DADORE, LALITA GUPTA, SIYARAM SAHU
Abstract- High speed interconnects on a PCB can alter the performance of the device when the data rate is in the order of Gbps range. These interconnects are necessary parts on a PCB since direct measurement of frequency characteristics of a device under test (DUT) at microwave frequencies is often difficult due to some intervening fixture used for feeding the DUT. These test fixtures or interconnect need to be characterized first and then de-embedded. This paper focuses on measurement techniques used to characterize high speed devices and describes an algorithm used to de-embed a test fixture (interconnects on PCB) with the help of measured S-parameters. Effects of De-embedding operation on various time domain parameters i.e. Eye width, Peak to peak amplitude level, Rise time etc. are analyzed.
30. LOCATION MULTILATERATION OF LIGHTNING STRIKES
Authors- KAMAU G.M., KANGETHE S.M., KAMAU S.I., GIESEN N.C.
Abstract- In Kenya and most developing countries, there is insufficient information about lightning pattern of any area, mainly because there are no systems that records lightning data. Lightning monitoring devices that use energy of sferics to records time and distance of lightning strikes from the sensor have been developed. On each device, a GPS is included for data synchronization from different devices. The devices are placed in different locations around Nairobi and simultaneously used to record lightning distances. The data gathered is analyzed using multilateration and information about position and frequency of lightning strikes is obtained. Though information of location and frequency of lightning strikes of an area can be recorded and stored, the linear configuration of the sensors causes ambivalence as to which side the lightning occurred. The data could be transferred centrally in real time to provide real time monitoring of frequency and location of lightning strikes.
Index Terms: Lightning, multilateration, Sensor.
31. INVESTIGATION ON CREATING HOLE USING CO2 LASER USING DOE APPROACH WITH MULTI PASS
Authors- R. J. AJUDIYA, A. A. SHAIKH
Abstract- The micromachining can be employed by using laser as a source for evaporation of material. The control of power and traverse speed of head are main parameters at the autofocus distance from workpiece to laser head. The present work deals with imparting laser beam on a single point for multiple strike to observe material removal and the depth of cut obtained by the experimentation is used for statistical analysis to develop the predictive model. The predictive model developed for acrylic material found with fair closeness with experimental depth of cut obtained.
Index Terms: CO2 laser, multi pass, micro machining, DOE
32. BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM BANANA PEEL BY USING MICRO WAVE
Authors- PALLAVI SHARMA, A. A. MISHRA
Abstract- Banana peel was pretreated through the process of microwave before they were simultaneously saccharified and fermentation by aspergillus niger and saccharomyces cerevisiae. They were pretreated with microwave power of 160 W at microwave time of 5 min. The reduction in sugar and glucose content in pretreated specimens under pretreated conditions were measured by biotransformation method. Fermentation was done for 7 days for banana peels and the ethanol content was measured every 24 hours. The optimum pH and temperature for the fermentation of banana peels was 6 and 30°C. The experimental results indicated that the microwave treatment could lead to signiﬁcant improvement in sugar production, including reducing sugar and glucose, which provided potential strategies for widening practical application of banana peel in the food industry.
Keywords: Banana peel, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF), Microwave treatment.
33. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEWER VERSION 3.0 AND SEWERGEMS V8I SOFTWARES FOR SANITARY SEWER NETWORK DESIGN
Authors- MURUGESH KATTI, DR. B. M. KRISHNA, DR. B. MANOJ KUMAR, JITHESH C
Abstract- The paper gives a comparative study of SEWER Version 3.0 and SewerGEMS V8i softwares for sanitary sewer design. SewerGEMS V8i, which allows projects to be accomplished in a short time, with high efficiency and low costs. Bentley SewerGEMS V8i is the first and only fully-dynamic, multi-platform (GIS, CAD and Stand-Alone) sanitary and combined sewer modeling solution. With Bentley SewerGEMS V8i, we will analyze all sanitary and combined sewer system elements in one package and have the option of performing the analyses with the SWMM algorithm or our own implicit solution of the full Saint Venant equations. The hydraulic design consists in the computation of the transit and total flow and hydraulic modeling for network pipes diameters or slopes. The application provides reports, layouts, longitudinal or transversal cross sections of the pipe network, displayed in an advanced graphic system based on AutoCAD technology. With specific tools and features included, SewerGEMS V8i offers a full range of possibilities for the designer to draw, label, dimension and plotting the drawings of the sewage networks. The computer program “SEWER Version 3.0” uses the manning’s equation for the heuristic design of sanitary sewer system. It is suitable for the design of small bore sewers as well as large diameter conventional sewers and can handle up 800 pipes. The program assists in the design of bedding and also calculate slope. The program also gives the cost abstract for the designed sewer network. The comparison of velocity, d/D ratio and pipe diameter can be done by taking one design example, for the outcomes got for SEWER Version 3.0 and SewerGEMS V8i.
Index Terms: ArcGIS and CAD, d/D ratio, MicroStation, SEWER Version 3.0, Sewage, Sewer network and SewerGEMS V8i
34. SENSOR BASED VEHICLE PARKING USING WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY AND VOICE ANNOUNCEMENT
Authors- R. RAJU, D SANTOSH KUMAR
Abstract- This paper proposes vacant parking slot detection and tracking system that fuses the sensors of automatic parking system. The proposed system consists of few stages: parking slot detection, and parking slot marking tracking. The parking slot marking detection stage recognizes various types of parking slot markings using IR Sensors. The parking slot occupancy classification stage identifies vacancies of detected parking slots using Infra sensor data. It is shown that the proposed method can recognize the positions and occupancies of various types of parking slot markings and stably track them under practical situations in a real-time manner. The proposed system is expected to help drivers conveniently select one of the available parking slots and support the parking control system by continuously updating the designated target positions, besides this the Driver would get the Information by putting a query and the result would be sent to his number. The Proposed Method is better than the referred one like AVM (Around view Monitoring) which involves the Image processing but the faults are caused if the input images are effected by noise then it would be difficult to take the decisions about the presence of the vehicles.
Index Terms: Parking assist system, parking slot marking detection and tracking, Infra sensor, Wireless Technologies, Around View Monitor (AVM).
35. SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ACACIA NILOTICA BARK AND EVALUATING IT’S ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY USING MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA
Authors- SHINOVA SINGH, MANISHA PRASAD
Abstract- Multi drug resistance has become an emerging and challenging issue for pharmaceutical industry as more and more bacteria are developing drug resistance towards many antibiotics, also over use of these synthetic drugs causes toxicity leading to further detrimental effects on human body. This study focused on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which is necessary for safe and effective exploitation of silver nanoparticles in collaboration with plant derived metabolites as a substitute for harmful synthetic drugs. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using bark of Acacia nilotica, synthesized silver nanoparticles were then subjected to check antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria like S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Spectral techniques like Uv-Vis, zetasizer and SEM were performed for the characterization of silver nanoparticles and results shows that AgNPs can be used as tool in combating the issue of drug resistance in future, as in comparison to broad-spectrum antibiotic silver nanoparticles showed better bacteriostatic effect against bacteria.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, antibacterial, antibiotic, bacteriostatic.
36. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF PUMPKIN POWDER FORTIFIED COOKIES
Authors- KUMAR PRATYUSH, DORCUS MASIH, CHITRA SONKAR
Abstract- This study was done on “development and quality evaluation of pumpkin powder fortified cookies”. The pumpkin powder was used for cookies preparation. It was incorporated into the traditional recipe to replace wheat flour at levels of 10, 20, 30, 40 & 50 in preparation of cookies. Result of sensory (appearance, color, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability) evaluation revealed that the 70-30% addition of pumpkin powder has higher overall acceptability, taste, texture and flavor and it was accepted by the panelists. However, a declining trend in acceptability was observed with increasing level of pumpkin powder for all the sensory characteristics. The nutritional value of the cookies (as determined through nutrient analysis of moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber) with 50-50% of pumpkin powder fortified fiber cookies was higher than other samples.
Key words: Cookies, fibre, vitamin, pumpkin cookies, bakery products.
37. QUALITY ANALYSIS OF POTATO POWDER EXTRUDED NOODLES
Authors- AFTAB ALAM, DORCUS MASIH, GOUSODDIN, CHITRA SONKAR
Abstract- Studies were conducted on incorporation of wheat flour and potato powder of different fractions in noodles and its quality were analyzed. Six samples were prepared with different ratios of wheat flour and potato powder (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50) (T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 ) respectively. Physico-chemical and sensory analysis were done for all the samples. The nutritional content of the final product was enhanced due to incorporation of potato powder. The carbohydrate content increased with increase in ratio of potato powder, fat content decreased from 1.6% in control to 1.05% in T5 sample. Same has been observed for fiber (increased from 0.80 to 1.575), ash (from 2.52 to 2.82) and carbohydrate (from 74.12 to 77.21). Noodles develop with addition of potato powder had desirable organoleptic properties as indicated by the taste panel studies as compared to control sample. However, based on sensory analysis, Sample T3 (70:30) was best selected samples based on sensory analysis, found more acceptable than other levels. Potato powder incorporated noodles was packed in LDPE and stored at room temperature. The storage studies were conducted at the interval of 0-45 days. Other nutritional content Ash, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, Fiber decrease with increase in storage time. Shelf life study of the sample was conducted by microbial analysis, yeast and mould count during the storage of 45 days were in acceptable limit. Hence the product is suitable for consumption and the potatoes are utilized and losses due to wastages can be minimized.
Index Terms: physiochemical analysis , Potato powder incorporated noodles, potato powder and wheat flour.
38. IMPLEMENTATION OF DOUBLY-FED WIND TURBINE ALONG WITH PID CONTROLLER TO MAINTAIN THE DESIRED OUTPUT LEVELS AND CONTROL THE PITCH ACCORDING TO WIND DIRECTION
Authors- AJAY SHUKLA, ANIL GUPTA
Abstract- In order to increase energy demand, alternative source of energy generation is required. A many hybrid system involve wind system due to availability and easy access of wind resource. The wind generated power fluctuating due to time varying nature and causing stability problems. When Wind turbine system is connected to the power grid to generate power always fluctuating due to environmental conditions. This paper is to modify and simulation for a wind farm with a high voltage transmission network. Here model is designed to control pitch angle by using PID controller and to maintain output level by stabilizing rotor speed. Analytical model of wind turbine has been presented and this was followed by the modelling of the wind farm under Sim Power of simulink. The stimulated turbine system uses a Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) having a capacity of 9 MW wind farm comprising of six 1.5 MW wind turbines linked with 25 kV distribution system transfers power to a 120 kV grid for a 30 km, 25 kV feeder . Initially in this model the wind speed is maintained constant at 15 m/s. PID Controller is introduced to regulate speed of rotor by adjusting pitch which controls speed changes. Result shows due to controlling of pitch angle output level is improved and good quality factor is achieved. We have applied fuzzy controller to establishe maximum power delivery to the grid at trip. This design having full control on the electrical torque, speed and also makeup a reactive power compensation and operation under grid disturbances which improve desired output levels.
Key words- Modelling simulation, DFIG, PID Controller, Pitch angle, output, Fuzzy logic Control
39. STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL AND QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF FERMENTED PIGEON PEA INCORPORATED BISCUIT
Authors- ABHISHEK SRIVASTAVA, KUMARI LAKSHAMI BALA
Abstract- This study was done on “nutritional quality of biscuit produced from mixture of fermented pigeon pea and wheat flour”. The pigeon pea powder was used for biscuit preparation. It was incorporated into the traditional recipe to replace wheat flour at levels of 10, 20, and 30 in preparation of biscuit. Result of sensory (appearance, colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability) evaluation revealed that the 80-20% addition of pigeon pea powder has higher overall acceptability, taste, texture and flavour and it was accepted by the panellists. However, a declining trend in acceptability was observed with increasing level of pigeon pea powder for all the sensory characteristics. The nutritional value of the biscuit (as determined through nutrient analysis of moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber) with 70-30% of pigeon pea powder fortified protein biscuit was higher than other samples.
Key words: biscuit, protein, pigeon pea biscuit, bakery products.
40. DIVERSITY, PREVALENCE AND ROLE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN CYANOBACTERIA
Authors- KANU PRIYA, NAMITA SINGH, INDERJEET SINGH
Abstract- Superoxide dismutase (SOD), the antioxidant enzyme exists in four diverse forms in cyanobacteria i.e. FeSOD, MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and NiSOD. FeSOD has an ancestral origin from the GSB ancestor of PSI while MnSOD has protobacterial ancestor to PSII & mitochondria. Cu/ZnSOD shows lateral gene transfer while NiSOD is rarely found. Fe & Mn forms share similarity while Cu/Zn form does not. SOD is prevalent in all subcellular locations where O2- (superoxide) radicals are formed. SOD plays a defensive role at the time of environmental stress like chilling, dessication, light stress, metatoxicity etc and its activity is usually seen higher at the time of stress. Inactivation of SOD gene results in oxidative damage to the cell.
Key words: SOD, Antioxidant, Isoforms, Localization, Environmental stress.
41. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF CYANOBACTERIAL (POLYMER) SILVER NANO PARTICLE CONJUGATES
Authors- RITIKA CHANAN, MINAKSHI LALIT, NAVEEN, NAMITA SINGH
Abstract- Emergence of microbial resistance is the one of the major problem nowadays; thus there have been tremendous efforts towards finding new metabolites for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. Cyanobacteria have been identified as one of the most promising group of micro-organisms from which novel and biochemically active natural products can be isolated. Synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts has gained utmost importance in research world but biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microbes is still unexplored and underexploited. In the case of micro-algal species, Cyanobacteria have been studied in great detail for in-vitro silver nano-particle generation and stabilization. Treatment of Cyanobacterial cell extracts with silver nitrate solution in proper concentration and conditions may cap the microbial metabolic proteins and may cause the reduction of silver ions leading to synthesis of silver nanoparticles. In the present study, chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (particle size – 85nm) were stabilized using different Cyanobacterial polymeric particles (biological) and were evaluated in terms of antibacterial activity and characterized using UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The particle size of nanoparticles was determined using particle size analyzer. With this study, these nanoparticles bearing antimicrobial activity thus, can be used as a novel source for commercial applications in the different fields: pharmaceutical, cosmetics, industrial, Environmental, food, Agricultural, chemical, medical sector etc.
KEY WORDS: Silver nanoparticles, Cyanobacterial polymeric particles, Antimicrobial activity.
42. THE GOLDEN CODE IN ASYNCHRONOUS DISTRIBUTED NETWORKS
Authors- Mrs. ANKITHA RADHAKRISHNAN, Mrs. SUMAN WADKAR
Abstract- Introduced in 2005, the Golden Space-Time Block Codes (STBC) is a full-rate, full-diversity perfect STBC that has a maximum coding gain for an asynchronous MIMO system and helps improve its bit error performance. In this project, an effective scheme is proposed to achieve asynchronous distributed transmission with the Golden Code, over a two-hop MIMO relay channel. And also two detection methods are adopted i.e. maximum likelihood (ML) decoding and sphere decoding (SD) within the asynchronous relay network.In addition, full maximum likelihood (ML) decoding and sphere decoding (SD) is adopted as the detection approach within the asynchronous relay network. Simulation results based on end-to-end bit error rate confirms that this approach gives the positive results.
Keywords— Golden code ,full rate, full diversity, maximum-likelihood decoding, sphere decoding.
43. SOFT SWITCHING IMPLEMENTATION FOR PV GENERATION AND HVDC SYSTEM
Authors- RAHUL YADAV, R. K. GUPTA
Abstract- The aim behind this paper is to study the soft switching two phase boost converter for photovoltaic (PV) system. The significant parameters that affect the system presentation are input current and voltage ripples. The advantages of two phase boost converter contain increased efficiency, reduced size and enhanced reliability. This converter can be used in such applications for interfacing. By implementing soft switching method, reduction in switching losses and also reduction in ripples can be achieved so that system efficiency is enhanced. The simulation study of two phase Soft Switching boost converter fed by PV source is carried out using MATLAB simulation on discrete mode and results are presented in this paper. The comparative analysis is also made among the two phase converter with different inductor coupling.
Keywords- Boost converter, interleaved, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), photovoltaic (PV) power-generation systems, resonant converter, soft-switching
44. STUDIES OF A SOLAR POWERED REFRIGERATOR WITH THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM
Authors- DEEPAK TOPPO, RANJAN KUMAR, HARI KUMAR SINGH
Abstract- The declination in the availability of fossil fuels due to increase in population growth hence also increase in consumption of energy in any form so use of fossil fuels will further deteriorate the environment. One of the growing industry is refrigeration and air conditioning due to the change in life style and also essential for the increase shell life of fruits, vegetables and to store certain medicines and vaccines.. World Health Organization (WHO) is focusing to use the solar operated refrigerator to store the vaccines at the desired temperature for their effective use in the rural areas of Africa and South Asia. The use of solar operated refrigerators can be more effective if supported by coolness storage.
In this project, efforts have been made to run a refrigerator with solar Photovoltaic power and to store the coolness to maintain the temperature during off sun shine hours.
This experiment describes an autonomous power source supply for the house hold 165L refrigerator and which is powered by the 300 watt photovoltaic cell. Requirement of storage of perishable food item was been fulfilled where electricity is not available or also be a good setup to save our fossil fuels. Problem arises at the night time there is a no sunlight so production of electricity through solar panel is not possible. But problem is being solved by storing coolness during day time using ice gel packs. Ice packs capable of maintaining temperature below 15˚C.
Food transportation and storage at low temperature is always being crucial matter through Worldwide which is being solved by this Phase Change Material (i.e. ice gel packs).
Keywords: Solar Photovoltaic Cell, Inverter ,Battery, Refrigerator, PCM.
45. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR AIR DRYER FOR THREE DIFFERENT ABSORBER PLATES
Authors- BALIRAM KUMAR, VIKAS KUMAR, HARI KUMAR SINGH
Abstract- Prime focus of this paper is to perform analysis of solar air heater cum dryer system. The categorical objectives of this paper are to compare the thermal performance of three different solar air heaters (Type I, Type II, and Type III) and also to study analytical and experimental performance of this fabricated solar drying system. This system can be used for drying various agricultural products like fruit and vegetables. During the course of study, red chilies, mint and grapes were successfully dried in the solar dryer. In this experiment, various parameters were used in absorber plate such as solar air heater with absorber plate (Type I), solar air heater having wire mesh (Type II), and Solar air heater having aluminum fins (Type III). The maximum thermal efficiency was achieved in this experiment in Type III, at air flow rate 4.20 m/s.
Keywords: Solar air heater, solar air dryer, Thermal efficiency, Solar flux W/m2, Mass flow rate and Absorber plate.
46. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR STILL WITH AND WITHOUT NANOFLUID
Authors- ABHINAV KR SINGH, HARI KUMAR SINGH
Abstract- The provision of fresh water is becoming an increasingly important issue in many areas of the world. Clean water is a basic human necessity, and without water life will be impossible. The rapid international developments, the industrial growth, agriculture and population explosion all over the world have resulted in a large escalation of demand for fresh water. The solar still is the most economical way to accomplish this objective. When water evaporates, water vapour rises leaving the impurities like salts, heavy metals and condensate on the underside of the glass cover. Solar distillation has low yield, but safe and pure supplies of water in remote areas. The attempts are made to increase the productivity of solar still by using nanofluids and also by black paint coating inside the still basin. Heat transfer enhancement in solar still is one of the key issues of energy saving and compact designs. Recently, as an innovative material, nanosized particles have been used in suspension in solar still water. The fluids with nanosized solid particles suspended in them are called “nanofluids”. The suspended metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles change the transport properties, heat transfer characteristics and evaporative properties of the base fluid, The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the enhanced performance of a solar still using nanofluids with the conventional water. They greatly improve the rate of evaporation and hence the increase in efficiency.
Keywords: Solar Still; Nanofluid; Nanoparticles; Productivity
47. REVAMPING HIRELING SUPERVISION BY OPERATING HANA KNOWLEDGEBASE
Authors- K.TULASI KRISHNA KUMAR, G.NAGAPPA
Abstract- Hireling Relation Supervision Systems (HRSS) refers to the methodology that helps organizations in holding a hireling for a long time, which in turn benefits the business cases like data security, project tactics, quality of the product and many more. Extant hireling management systems are not fruitful because they calculate the issues only once when the hireling joins or quits an organization and few maintain them on yearly or tri monthly basis. operating the essence of information technology revolution as an opportunity to build better relationships with hirelings that was been previously not possible in the offline world. HRSS is primarily concerned with the organizational management and it takes into consideration hirelings’ care in context of hireling retention by giving idea to the key personals that normally deals with the motivation to staff, controlling hiring and assimilation delays and to improve the conglomeration standards. In this literature we propose an applicative methodology revamping HANA as advanced database management tool to provide day to day operations that helps in controlling hireling floating at crucial stages. We propose a methodology that is based on reutilizing the knowledge of previously stored data and maintaining the extant updated situations, where the outcome will be an automation mailing bureaucracy by operating millions of stored solutions which are retrieved by HANA.
Index terms – HANA, hireling supervision, datum, knowledge base, hireling satisfaction.
48. A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THREE SOLAR AIR HEATERS HAVING DIFFERENT ABSORBER AREA
Authors- VIKAS KUMAR, BALIRAM KUMAR, HARI KUMAR SINGH, AFJAUL ANSARI
Abstract- This main aim of this experiment was compare three solar air heaters having different absorber area, simple single pass solar air heater (SAHs) (Type I), single pass SAHs having aluminum wire mesh (Type II) and single pass SAHs having aluminum fins (Type III). In type II used aluminum wire mesh were insert on absorber plate, in order to deliver improved heat transfer surface. A 5 mm double glass plate used to covering the collector, to decrease convective heat losses to the ambiance. These three types of experimental setup were analyzed for various air flow rates (4.20 m/s and Natural Convection) and temperature condition versus time. The collector incline was adjusted to 26° and south faced, which is seemly for the geographical position of Jaipur (26.9260° N, 75.8235° E). In this experiment on the SAHs were working in the sunshiny days of May-June 2015. The maximum thermal efficiency 46.02 % was achieved in type III at air flow rate 4.20 m/s.
Keywords: Solar Air Heater, Aluminum Wire mesh, aluminium fins, Thermal Efficiency, Heat losses, Solar Flux w/m2 and absorber plate, Double glass cover, Pressure losses, convective heat transfer coefficient.
49. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PRETREATMENTS ON MINIMALLY PROCESSED POMEGRANATE ARILS DURING STORAGE
Authors- DHANASHREE SANGOLAGI, M.G. BHOSALE, NILESH GAIKWAD
Abstract- Minimally processed and “ready-to-eat” pomegranate arils are more popular due to their convenience, high value, unique sensory characteristics and health benefits. Increasing the shelf life of pomegranate arils is the most important aspect of this study. Studies were conducted on three different pretreatments viz. aloe vera gel (40, 50%), salicylic acid (2.0, 2.5mM), ascorbic acid: citric acid combination (0.5 & 1.0%) and control of minimally processed arils. The treated pomegranate arils were filled in punnet sealed with BOPP film and stored at 5°C. Arils quality and shelf life were evaluated during 0, 7, 14, 17, 19 days of storage. The results showed that the physicochemical parameters such as TSS, acidity, colour values a* and b* were increased during storage of arils and their was decrease in colour value L* and anthocyanin values during storage. In minimally processed arils microbial count of 7 log cfu/g is the end point of storage. Based on visual, microbial and sensory quality the shelf life of pomegranate arils was count upto 19 days for aloe vera 50%, salicylic acid 2.5mM, ascorbic acid: citric acids 1%. This study provides a useful guide for storage of pomegranate arils.
Keywords: Minimal Processing, Pretreatments, Quality Evaluation, Shelf Life.
50. CAMPARATIVE BIT ERROR RATE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 4G OFDM SYSTEM USING DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUE
Authors- KANCHAN VIJAY PATIL, R D PATANE
Abstract- The era of wireless technologies, mobile communication is rapidly approaching. It has gradually become more & more involved into everyday life. In which users are demanding versatile & convenient modes of communication along with multiple variety of communication services such as high speed data, video & multimedia traffic also with voice signals. With guaranteeing certain Quality of Services without losing the performance & efficiency. All these challenges are present in 4G. So OFDM has been recognized has one of the most promising techniques to meet these challenges. OFDM, which is in tern enabled by the high level of performance. OFDM is spectrally efficient and can provide high data rates with sufficient robustness to channel imperfection. Carriers will benefit from greater flexibility by using OFDM, since in the same spectrum they will be able to offer more channels, including higher bandwidth channels, with more types of services. Achieving higher data rates require OFDM systems to make more efficient use of bandwidth than CDMA systems. One method to achieving this higher efficiency is through use of higher order modulation. In this paper, we have simulated three digital modulation techniques BPSK, QPSK & QAM used for digital transmission of data. In which bit error rate is calculated and measured with respect to signal to noise ratio (SNR), Doppler Effect & guard interval. Also it gives a model of matlab simulation of 4G OFDM system & to analyze the bit error rate performance. OFDM is a mutli carrier modulation. The growing interest in multi carrier transmission by product developers & researchers motivate to propose this topic for special issue of wireless video transmission and communication. Multipath Additive White Gaussian Noise is used as communication channel. The effect of SNR and guard intervals on OFDM signals improves the system performance.
Index Terms: AWGN, BER, Guard Interval, Signal to Noise Ratio, OFDM.
51. IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF MEMORY RELIABILITY AGAINST MULTIPLE CELL UPSETS USING HYBRID MATRIX CODE
Authors- TARUN SRIVASTAVA, VIPIN GUPTA
Abstract- MCUs (Transient-Multiple Cell Upsets) are getting to be significant issues in the reliability of memories presented to radiation environment. To keep MCUs from bringing about data corruption, more complex ECCs (Error Correction Codes) are generally used to ensure memory, however the fundamental issue is that they would oblige higher delay overhead. As of late, matrix codes (MCs) have been proposed for protection of memory which generally based on hamming codes. Fundamental issue is which they’re double error-correction codes and error-correction capabilities aren’t enhanced in all the cases Particular paper, novel Hybrid-Matrix-Code (HMC) in light of divide-symbol is proposed to upgrade memory reliability with the lower delay-overhead. Proposed HMC uses decimal algorithm to get the maximum error detection ability. In addition, ERT (Encoder Reuse Technique) is proposed to minimize range overhead of additional circuits without exasperating the entire encoding and decoding procedures. ERT utilizes HMC encoder itself to be a piece of the decoder. The proposed HMC is contrasted with surely understood codes, for example, the current MCS, hamming, and PDS (punctured difference set) codes. They got results demonstrate that mean-time to failure (MTTF) of proposed plan is 452.9%, 154.6%, hamming, MC, and PDS, individually. In the meantime, the delay overhead of the proposed plan is 73.1%, 69.0%, and 26.2% of hamming, separately. The main disadvantage to the proposed plan is which it requires the more redundant-bits for the memory security
Keywords- ECCS (Error Correction Codes), Decimal Algorithm, MTTF (Mean Time to Failure), Memory, (MCUs) Multiple Cells Upsets.
52. ATTRITION & RETENTION THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES OF HR IN INDIAN BPOs
Authors- VIPIN KUMAR TOMER, Dr. R.P SINGH
Abstract- In India the BPO sector is one of the fastest growing sectors contributing major share to our Gross Domestic Product. Factors such as economy of scale, cost advantage and superior competency have all lead to the growth of the BPO Industry in India. The BPO Boom in India can be credited to cheap labour cost, huge talent pool of skilled and English Speaking professionals availability. The Report of NASSCOM has revealed that the geographic location and investor friendly tax structure in India have all made the one of the shining sectors and popular. This poses a great challenge for Human Resource Professionals to retain the talented and skilled workforce and maintaining a consistency in the performance. HR manager has been facing various problems in general and retaining quality staff in general. The present paper dwells into identifying the various factors that lead to employee attrition and explaining the importance of sound organizational policies.
Keywords: Outsourcing, HR Challenges, Retention, Personal Factors, Work Stress.