Volume 4 Issue 2: 2016

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1. Design and Development of A Cross Flow Micro Hydro Turbine

Authors- 1Abhishek Sharma, 2D. Buddhi

Affiliation- 1M.Tech Scholar, Centre of Excellence-Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, 302025, INDIA

2Director, Centre of Excellence-Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, 302025, INDIA

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160351

© Abhishek Sharma et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Cross Flow Micro Hydro Turbine has been an emerging area of interest in recent years of research due to ever increasing conventional fuel scarcity and environmental concerns due to pollution. Hydro power a renewable power has proved to be an efficient and alternative tool in the increasing the demand of the electricity production by utilizing the potential & kinetic energy of water falling around. This work represents the design, development, and performance evaluation of a micro cross flow turbine effect of overall output of 1.5KW. Field trial of the turbine was done by using the water head and water flow generated through a tube well and power output obtained.

Keywords: Micro hydro power, Cross flow turbine, alternator, rural electrification.

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2. Design, Modeling Analysis and Performance Evaluation of a Single Phase Variable Frequency Drive for Induction Motor: An Energy Conservation Approach

Authors- 1Devendra Pal Singh, 2D. Buddhi

Affiliation- 1M.Tech Scholar, Centre of Excellence-Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, 302025.

2Director, Centre of Excellence-Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, 302025

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160359

© Devendra Pal Singh et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- For variable load on electric motors, one of the effective methods to save energy is “Variable Frequency Drive” (VFD). It would help in conserving the energy by optimizing the energy consumption with load. In this paper the single phase variable frequency drive (VFD) is presented. The single phase VFD is used to drive the single phase motors at different frequencies. The design of single phase VFD consists of an AC to DC converter and a DC to AC converter. The VFD is designed for 150 W loads. Two steps of conversion are shown with its design parameter. The change in the output frequency and voltage is achieved with the help of synchronizing the switches with its switching frequency. However, the paper also validates the performance of single phase VFD with the simulation as well as the hardware result. The results obtained from both results show that the difference between the desired and actual result is very low and the circuit is performing accurately. The simulation is carried out on simulink of MATLAB software. The performance evaluation of the developed hardware is conducted on an electric motor of 150 W. It was found that by reducing the frequency from 50Hz to 40Hz the power consumption is reduced by 27%.

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3. Effect of Time and Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Puree

Authors- 1Shashi Prabha Pandey, 2Avanish Kumar

Affiliation- 1M.Tech Food Engineering ,Vaugh School Of Agriculture Sciences and Technology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Sciences and Technology, Allahabad ,U.P., India, Email: pandeyprabha2@gmail.com

2Assistant Professor, Department of Food Technology, Vaugh School of Agriculture Sciences and Technology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Sciences and Technology, Allahabad ,U.P., India, Email: avanish.kumar@shiats.edu.in

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160368

© Shashi Prabha Pandey et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The evaluation of rheological property and chemical analysis of Tomato puree was carried out in this project.  The microbial analysis and shelf life evaluation was also done at the interval of 15, 30 and 45 days. The sensory evaluation was also carried out in this experiment. Tomato puree exhibited a non-Newtonian behaviour with a yield stress. The yield stress decreases with increasing temperature as well as with decreasing the solid content. Tomato puree without seed shows more viscosity and exhibited a thixotropic behaviour at low shear rate and changes to anti thixotropic behaviour at higher shear rate regardless of the temperature and solid content. The transient shear stress data of tomato puree containing seed showed a time independent behaviour. The control sample had no preservative in it and it lost its nutritional value within 15 days. The T1 had sugar and salt as preservative and had good sensory qualities but its life was up to 30 days. The T2 had Acetic acid as preservative in it. It had both shelf life and good nutritional value. To study the effect of temperature on the rheological properties of tomato puree, samples of 25% solids paste were maintained at rest for 15 min in the viscometer to equilibrate with the experimental temperature of 4, 37 and 60°C, before conducting the measurements. Temperature of the viscometer was controlled using thermostatic circulating water bath.

Index Terms: Tomato, puree, viscosity, physico-chemical analysis, microbial analysis time and temperature dependency.

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4. Effect of Extrudate Process Variable on Macrostructure and Physical Parameters of Extrudates Fenugreek Seed Powder and Oat Flour Products

Authors- 1Nikhil D. Solanke, 2Amol Vaidya, 3Kundilk Gaware, 4Dr. P. Kumar

Affiliation- 1, 2, 3 M.Tech Food Engineering and Technology, Department of Food Engineering and Technology Sant Longwal Institute of Engineering and technology, Longwal-148106 (Punjab). India.

4Professor, Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Sant Longwal Institute of Engineering and technology, Longwal-148106 (Punjab). India.

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160374

© Nikhil D. Solanke et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The study effect of fenugreek seed powder and oat flour on macrostructure and physical properties of extruded products viz. bulk density, lateral expansion, water absorbance index, water sorption index, specific length and expansion ratio. Based on Preliminary evaluation, proportions of fenugreek seed powder and oat flour were varied in the range of 1% to 5% and 3% to 15%. As increased in fenugreek seed powder and oat flour results increased in lateral expansion and decreased water solubility index. While water absorption index decreased with increased in fenugreek seed powder and increased with oat flour addition.

Keywords: Extrusion, Fenugreek seed powder, Oat flour, Macrostructure.

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5. Land Use/ Land Cover Mapping With Change Detection Analysis of Aluva Taluk Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors- 1Jiya George, 2Linda Baby, 3Anjaly P Arickal, 4Jose Dev Vattoly

Affiliation- 1M.Tech student, Department of coastal and offshore Engineering, K.U.F.O.S. Kochi, Kerala, India, Email: jiyageorge1993@gmail.com

2B.Tech Graduate, Civil Engineering, FISAT Angamaly, Kerala, India, Email: lindababy2011@gmail.com

3B.Tech Graduate, Civil Engineering, FISAT Angamaly, Kerala, India, Email: anjalyarickal@gmail.com

4B.Tech Graduate, Civil Engineering, FISAT Angamaly, Kerala, India, Email: josdev1993@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160383

© Jiya George et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Land use and land cover change has become a central component in current strategies for managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes .In the present study,  Land Use /Land Cover mapping and change detection analysis of Aluva taluk was done using remote sensing and GIS.  Multi spectral satellite data of LANDSAT has been used to map and monitor land use changes occurred during 2000 and 2010. LU/LC classification has been done using ERDAS imagine 9.2 software. The supervised classification technique was used, which is based on Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (MLA). The results obtained shows considerable land use changes in the major classes like Built up, Crop land, Plantation and Forest.

Keywords: Land Use/Land Cover change, Remote Sensing, GIS, Maximum likelihood classifier.

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6. A Survey on Fast Distributed Algorithm on Data Mining

Authors- 1Sudha, 2Poovarasi, 3Revathi

Affiliation- 1Assistant Professor, Computer Science Engineering, Christ college of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry, India, sudhacse@christcet.edu.in

2Student, Computer Science Engineering, Christ college of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry, India, puvi.murthy14@gmail.com

3Student, Computer Science Engineering, Christ college of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry, India, revathianand6@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160390

© Poovarasi et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The perception of data mining is to detect the significant data, patterns and trends from magnanimous store of data by using number of algorithms. Intrusion and detection system is the security management system for computers and network that tries to trace the attacks. The fast distributed mining algorithm is applied to the transaction log of the database to recognize all the frequent patterns on the database and also it identifies intermittently any new patterns detected. The framework is cogitating mainly on increasing the accuracy of the patterns detected on the database transactions. It focuses on detecting patterns that were not detected previously by old versions of the algorithms. In addition to, enhancing the performance of the model proposed, especially with high-capacity databases.

Keywords: Association Rule, Data mining, Intrusion and Detection System (IDS), Fast Distributed Mining (FDM).

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7. Survey on Methods for Speech Intelligibility Enhancement in Hearing Aids

Authors- 1Sindhu N, 2Merlin Revathy S

Affiliation- 1Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College, Barton Hill, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, Email: narolisindhu@gmail.com

2Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College, Barton Hill, Thiruvananthapuram,Kerala,India, Email: merlinrevathy@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160396

© Merlin Revathy S et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Communication system involves a speaker, listener and a communication device. The speech signal should be transmitted such that it reaches the listener with good quality. In real life scenario, the speech signal reaches the listener with various disturbances. Physiological and pathological disabilities of human auditory system reduce speech intelligibility under noisy environment. Hence hearing aids need to integrate noise reduction algorithm with amplification. The prime objective of noise reduction algorithm is to raise the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal to be fed to the ear drum. The binaural setup provides significant increase in speech intelligibility than monaural setup. The binaural noise reduction algorithm should be designed such that the rhythm pattern and the Interaural Coherence are preserved. The time delay and complexity of the algorithm should be minimalistic so as to have better performance.

Keywords: Speech intelligibility, noise reduction, binaural, and hearing aids etc.

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8. Monitoring Human-Leopard Conflict in Altitudinal Variations with Landscape Characteristics Using GIS and Remote Sensing in Pauri Garhwal, India

Authors- 1Manoj Agarwal, 2Kunwar Sain, 3Devendra Singh, 4S. P. Goyal

Affiliation- 1, 2, 3, 4 Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box 18, Chandrabani, Dehradun – 248001, Uttarakhand, India

Email: manojkumar@wii.gov.in

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160402

© Manoj Agarwal et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Wildlife resources are very important components of a sustainable forest. All wildlife need food, water, forest cover and forest corridors for their survival. These basic biological needs are the most important components of the wildlife habitat in the forest.  Carnivore is one of the groups; need much wider forested areas and corridors for their survival and to continue to exist in a region.  There is a need to see how human and wildlife can co-exist by identifying and assessing the condition of wildlife habitats both within and outside protected areas. Man-Animal conflict problems have been recorded across India.  In northern India, leopards are common in the forests of Pauri Garhwal District, Uttaranchal.  Most of the areas where leopards travel is insecure and putting human in direct conflict with wildlife.  District administration is facing severe problem of Human-Leopard conflict where conflict rate is inclining due to degradation of quality wildlife habitat and natural prey, resulting leopards are naturally forced to move towards human habitat areas. In the present study, we have monitored altitudinal variations with landscape characteristics in relation to different level of human-leopard conflicts observed in Pauri Garhwal, district of Uttaranchal, India using GIS and Remote Sensing. Landuse/landcover map at 1:50,000 scales were used for extracting the information about forest, non-forest and other habitat characteristics.  Digital Elevation Model was generated for recording the information from low, medium and high conflict zones.  Coded Grids of 2×2 km having information about level of conflicts were used for calculating the geographical area and percent area of forest, non-forest and other habitat characteristics falling in each zone (Chauhan and Goyal 2001). In Pauri Garhwal District high conflicts have been recorded between 900 and 1500m altitudinal variations.  It has been found that scrub is dominating with more than 50 percent where percentage of forest and habitation/agriculture is more or less equally distributed with 25 percent.  On the other hand, least conflict prone areas inhabited by high percentage of forest and scrub with the ratio of 5: 6 respectively.  The potential of state-of-art GIS and Remote Sensing technology has made possible to work in in-accessible landscapes like Pauri Garhwal, where altitudinal variation lies between 275 and 3200 m as well as predict any potential conflict areas in adjoining habitats in Uttaranchal.

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9. Blood Flow Stimulator and Foot Neuropathy Analyzer Embedded in Smart Motion Sensing Shoes Designed For Diabetic Patients

Authors- 1A. Arthy, 2L. Balaji

Affiliation- 1UG Student, Department of ECE, IFET College Of Engineering, Villupuram, India, Email: arthyifetece@gmail.com

2Assistant Professor, Department of ECE, IFET College Of Engineering, Villupuram, India, Email: balaji87.ram@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160409

© A. Arthy et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- This paper is to design and build a low-cost foot pressure, foot movement analysis, blood flow stimulation and in addition heart rate monitoring system embedded within the smart footwear. The patient can wear the sensing shoes to monitor his or her foot pressure distribution and heart rate. The aged people who may not walk they monitor with the help of heart rate sensing unit if the patient’s in abnormal condition means send an alert to the smart phone. Once the system detects an anomaly in the user’s foot pressure distribution or foot motion, it issues an alert to the handheld  device and diagnose foot neuropathy by stimulating the blood flow with the help of inbuilt vibrating motor in addition diagnose the Blood Pressure as early as possible.

Keywords: Microcontroller, flexi force sensor, TCRT1000Sensor, accelerometer, Vibrating motor, Smartphone.

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10. Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and Mitigating the Effect of the Attack

Authors- 1Akash Ukande, 2Avin Vij, 3Saurabh Lakhe, 4Shubham Gedam, 5Sumit Ishwarkar

Affiliation- 1,2,3,4,5 Student, Computer Technology, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of engineering, Maharashtra, India.

Email: 1akashukande44@gmail.com, 2avinvij26@gmail.com, 3saurabhlakhe2310@gmail.com, 4gedamshubham@gmail.com, 5sumish281995@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160414

© Saurabh Lakhe et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In the world of computer network, the distributed denial of service attacks have become one of the most harmful attacks on the networks services. Hence there is a need to design effective mechanisms to detect and mitigate the effect of these attacks. In this paper, we propose to detect the various DDoS attacks like TCP Flood, TCP SYN-FIN, Port 0 attacks by analyzing the packet headers against the well defined rules and conditions. Detected attack packets will be separated from normal traffic packets and the effect of attack traffic will be mitigated by the mitigation mechanism. The performance of victim and designed detection and mitigation mechanisms under various attack patterns will be evaluated using evaluation parameters- CPU usage and memory usage, response time.

Keywords: DDoS attacks; Detection; Mitigation; CPU usage; Response Time

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11. Simulation of Optimized PID with Power System Stabilizer Using MATLAB

Authors- 1Rakesh Kumar Nirmalkar, 2S. M. Deshmukh

Affiliation- 1M.Tech Student, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Disha Institute of Management and Technology, Satya Vihar – Raipur, India, Email: mailto:rakeshnirmalkar@hotmail.com

2Head of Department, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Disha Institute of Management and Technology, Satya Vihar – Raipur, India, Email: shailesh.deshmukh@dishamail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160421

© Rakesh Kumar Nirmalkar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- This paper proposed to show improvement of a Self Tuned Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) with PSS system is replaced by Optimized PID controller with PSS which is presented for improving stability and obtained to well tuned parameter from maximum sensitivity of power system in SIMULINK environment. The development of a PID with power system stabilizer in order to maintain stability and enhance the performance of a power system is described widely. The application of the optimized PID with PSS controller is investigated by means of simulation studies on a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. The functional blocks of optimized PID with PSS are developed in SIMULINK and simulation studies are carried out. A study case for the validation of the proposed SIMULINK mechanism is presented and analyzed with control application for a synchronous alternator excitation system. The superior performance of this stabilizer in comparison to Self tuning PID with PSS proves the efficiency of this new Optimized PID with PSS controller. The comparison studies carried out for various results such as speed deviation, field voltage, rotor angle and load angle in simulations; this will be reachable steady state and dynamic response.

Keywords: Power System Stabilizer, Automatic Voltage Regulator, Optimized PID Controller, Excitation System.

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12. An Experimental Study of Design and Fabrication Details of Parabolic Solar Dish Collector for Water Heating

Authors- 1Nitish Kumar, 2Anjali, 3Rajesh Kumar Singadiya, 4Shubhranshu Shrestha

Affiliation- 1, 2, 3, 4 Centre of Excellence, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India-302025

Email: bnitish31@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160430

© Nitish Kumar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The Design and fabrication of a parabolic solar dish collector for water heating and domestic household application is described. The parabolic solar dish collector provide 120 liter of hot water per day. For effective performance of the design requires that parabolic solar dish collector track the sun continuously, and an automatic time based circuit was designed and developed for this purpose. The experimental set up inclined adjusted to 26° and south faced, which is seemly for the geographical position of Jaipur (26.9260°N, 75.8235°E). The experiment set up was working in the sunshiny days of June 2015. The experimental test operates carried out showed that overall performance of the parabolic solar dish collector was satisfactory. Overall performance of 47.29% was obtained which is higher than designed value 40% to 60%. The use of a wiper motor and gear – pinion mechanism with time based electronic circuit to track the sun eliminates the need for constant monitoring by a human operator and, thus, reduces the cost of labour.

Keywords: Parabolic solar dish collector, Copper cylinder, Tracking circuit, and thermocouple.

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13. Performance Analysis of a Solar Hybrid Air Conditioner with Waste Heat Recovery and Re-Use Using Evacuated Tube Collector

Authors- 1Anjali, 2D. Buddhi, 3Nitish Kumar, 4Hari Kumar Singh

Affiliation- 1, 3M.Tech Scholar, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

2Director of center of Excellence in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies

4Assistant Professor, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160436

© Anjali et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- This paper introduced about general features of the Hybrid air conditioning system consisting of R140A vapor compression refrigeration cycle cascaded with solar driven and maximum COP (coefficient of Performance) compressor power consumption was obtained as 3.5 KW. The maximum total COP (coefficients of performance) and to optimize operation are obtained at different modes as heating and cooling. The system was calculated hourly variations and of different parameters such that condenser fins temperature, Evaporator cooling capacity, condenser capacity, compressor power consumption. In addition also co-efficient of performance were calculated at various parameter work done.

Keywords: Hybrid Air Conditioner system, Compressor, Evaporator, Condenser. Expansion Valve, Solar Evacuated Tubes Collector.

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14. A Review Paper on Mitigation of Power Quality Issues in Distribution System by Using D-Statcom

Authors- 1Priya R. Sonone, 2Pratiksha A. Shende, 3Shubhangi R. Thakre, 4Mangesh J. Nemade

Affiliation- 1Student, Electrical (E&P) Engg , DES’s COET Dhamangaon Rly, pratikshashende94@gmail.com

2Student, Electrical (E&P) Engg , DES’s COET Dhamangaon Rly, priyasonone7@gmail.com

3Student, Electrical (E&P) Engg , DES’s COET Dhamangaon Rly, thakreshubhangi25@gmail.com

4Assistant Professor, Electrical (E&P) Engg, DES’s COET Dhamangaon Rly, mangesh.nimade223@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160441

© Priya R. Sonone et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In this paper there is mitigation of power quality issue by using fact devices like D-STATCOM, DVR, SVC. The D-STATCOM is used for solving power quality problem in distribution system. This D-STATCOM is connected as a shunt to the transmission line at the load side. It injects the current after that generates and absorbs the reactive power as per requirement. This work on the VSC(voltage source converter)principle, by use these principle they reduce the voltage sag problem and by using LCL passive filter harmonic distortion get reduce and improve power factor. The simulations were performed using MATLAB SIMULINK version R2010b.

Keywords: D-STATCOM, VSC (voltage source converter), Controller, LCL passive filter.

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15. Economic Full Adder Circuit in VLSI Using Shannon Expansion

Authors- 1M. Singh, 2M. K. Pandit, 3A. K. Jana

Affiliation- 1Master of Technology Scholar, VLSI, Haldia Institute Of Technology, Email: getmanish08@gmail.com

2Professor, Haldia Institute Of Technology, Email: mkpandit.seci@gmail.com

3Associate Professor, Haldia Institute Of Technology, Email: asimkjana@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160446

© M. Singh et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- This paper presents an efficient high-speed 8-bit full adder using Shannon’s expansion.  The adder  is  designed  and  implemented  using  180nm  CMOS  process  technology.  The  proposed  adder  provides  a  good  compromise  between  cost  and  performance  in  carry  propagation  adder  design. The proposed full adders for low power and high performance neural network training circuits has been implemented using Shannon decomposition based technique for sum and carry operation. The hardware includes multiplier circuit for product term and an adder circuit to perform summation. The proposed full adder is designed using tanner EDA tools and the resulting parameters such as 25% improvement in power dissipation and 22% improvement in transistor count from the simulated output when compared with ripple carry adder cell.  It  decreases  the  computational  time  compared  to  ripple  carry  adder  and  thus  increases  the  speed.

Keywords: Shannon theorem, Shannon Expansion, Adder Cell, Power, Area, Propagation Delay, Transistor count.

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16. Direction of Arrival Estimation for Shaped Dielectric Lens Array Antenna

Authors- 1S Ravishankar, 2Shushrutha K. S

Affiliation- 1,2Department of Electronics and Communication, RV College of Engineering, Mysore Road, Bangalore, India

Email: shushruthks@gmail.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160449

© Shushrutha K. S et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- A cost effective smart antenna can be implemented by a exciting the shaped dielectric lens by array antenna, by introducing dielectric lens the directivity is enhanced due to collimation of the rays in the specified direction, reduces interference and seals the array from environmental effects. However the major drawback with the use of a dielectric lens is compensation of the refractive effects of the lens in the receiving mode to obtain the angles of arrival to locate the desired signal. This paper dwells on the array signal processing algorithms to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DOA), using the algorithms MVDR and MUSIC. Analysis is continued for other conditions like resolution, different SNR values and presence of multiple sources with MUSIC and MVDR methods for 2×2 array antennas. Ray tracing method was introduced to analyze DOA in presence of dielectric lens. This lead to determination of virtual DOA due to refraction of rays in dielectric lens the shape of dielectric chosen is spheroid and 2×2 element linear arrays are chosen for analysis in this paper.

Keywords: Adaptive Beam Forming, Direction of Arrival, Minimum Variance Distortion less Response, Multiple Signal Classification.

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17. Performance Comparison of High-Speed Adders Using 180nm Technology

Authors- 1Steena Maria Thomas, 2Sharon Susanna Kurian, 3Shalu P Chacko, 4Saranya Chacko, 5Marie K James

Affiliation- 1UG student, Electronics and communication Engineering, SAINTGITS college of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala, India, steenathomas94@gmail.com

2UG student, Electronics and communication Engineering, SAINTGITS college of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala, India, sharonsusanna243@gmail.com

3UG student, Electronics and communication Engineering, SAINTGITS college of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala, India, shaluchacko19@gmail.com

4UG student, Electronics and communication Engineering, SAINTGITS college of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala, India, saranyachacko100@gmail.com

5Assistant Professor, Electronics and communication Engineering, SAINTGITS college of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala, India, marie.james@saintgits.org

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160457

© Steena Maria Thomas et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Addition is one of the fundamental arithmetic operations. It is used extensively in many VLSI systems such as application-specific DSP architectures and microprocessors. In addition to its main task, which is adding binary numbers, it is the nucleus of many other useful operations such as subtraction, Multiplication, division, addresses calculation, etc. In most of these systems the adder is part of the critical path that determines the overall performance of the system. That is why enhancing the performance of the 1-bit full-adder cell (the building block of the binary adder) is a significant goal. The adder is the most commonly used arithmetic block of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Digital Signal Processing (DSP), therefore its performance and power optimization is of utmost importance. With the technology scaling to deep sub-micron, the speed of the circuit increases rapidly (doubling every 18 months assuming Moore’s Law). At the same time, the power consumption per chip also increases significantly due to the increasing density of the chip. The design of an effective cooling system becomes a big major challenge in the VLSI circuit design. This in turn puts constraints on the speed improvement of circuit performance. Therefore, in realizing modern VLSI circuits, low-power and high-speed are the two predominant factors which need to be considered. Like any other circuits’ design, the design of high-performance and low-power adders can be addressed at different levels, such as architecture, logic style, layout, and the process technology. As the result, there always exists a trade-off between the design parameters such as speed, power consumption, and area. The objective of our project is to design a high-speed adder, along with lower-power and smaller area as a prime consideration. A Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Transmission Gate (TG) adder and Dual rail-domino full adder are implemented using 180nm technology from Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC).

Keywords: Dual Rail domino adder, PDP, Precharge and Evaluation, TG adder.

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18. Phytofabrication and Characterization of Copper Nanoparticles Using Allium Sativum and its Antibacterial Activity

Authors- 1Akansha Treeza Joseph, 2Poonam Prakash, 3S. S Narvi

Affiliation- 1MSc. Chemistry 4th semester student; Department of Chemistry, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad -211007, (U.P.) India.

Email: treeza023@gmail.com

2Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad -211007, (U.P.) India.

3Professor and Head, Department of Chemistry, MNNIT Allahabad – 211 004, India.

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160463

© Akansha Treeza Joseph et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The present study focuses on the simple effective and rapid approach for the phytofabrication of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and investigation of its antibacterial activity. Copper was of a particular interest for this process due to its evocative physical and chemical properties. On addition of plant extract to copper sulphate solution the change in colour of the reaction mixture was observed which proved the formation of nanoparticles. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized CuNPs, viz. UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD. Synthesis of colloidal CuNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized CuNPs were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 100 nm. Antibacterial activity of the Cu nanoparticles was evaluated by testing against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles was found to be more effective against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis).

Index Terms: Phytofabrication1, Allium sativum2, copper nanoparticles3, UV-Vis spectroscopy4, SEM5, TEM6, and XRD7.

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19. Removal of Dyes from Aqueous Solution Using Activated Carbon of Poplar Tree

Authors- Rakesh Chauhan, Jitender Pal

Affiliation- M.Tech. Student, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001, Haryana, India, Email: rakeshchauhan@gmail.com

Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001, Haryana, India, Email: j_pal2k1@yahoo.com

DDI – 10.2348/ijset03160473

© Rakesh Chauhan et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Low-cost by-products from agricultural waste have been recognized as a sustainable method for wastewater pollution abatement. These wastes remove of pollutants from wastewater and at same time to contribute to the waste utilization and reuse. The present study is concerned with the low cost adsorbent prepared from popular tree for removal of selected dyes [Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR)] from aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were performed with dye (50, 100 and 150 mg/l) concentrations, adsorbent doses (0.1-0.8g/50 ml) and contact time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Removal of methylene blue and congo red dyes are pH dependent and the maximum removal was attained at pH (6) for MB and pH (4) for CR dye. The optimum dose for both dye removal was 0.4g/50ml of dye solution. The maximum removal of dyes was achieved in 120min. It was found that ACP removes more efficiently MB dye than CR dye.

Keywords: Poplar tree, Wastewater, Dyes, Methylene Blue, Congo red and Adsorption, etc.

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Call for Papers for Volume 04 Issue 03: 2016

International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology globally welcomes research scholars & scientists to Publish their full-length papers, reviews, and short communications exploring and to promote diverse and integrated areas of the Science, Engineering, Technology, Medical Science, Pharmaceutical Science, Geography, Mathematics, Biotechnology and all the related fields of Science and Technology.

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Email Spam Filtering using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors- Abhishek Shrivastava

Abstract- Email spam or garbage email (undesirable email “more often than not of a business nature conveyed in mass”) is one of the real issues of today’s Internet, conveying money-related harm to organizations and irritating individual clients. Among the methodologies created to stop spam, separating is an essential and well-known one. Regular uses for mail channels incorporate sorting out approaching email and evacuation of spam and PC infections. A less regular utilize is to assess active email at a few organizations to guarantee that workers follow fitting laws. Clients may likewise utilize a mail channel to organize messages and to sort them into envelopes in view of the topic or other criteria. Mail channels can be introduced by the client, either as isolated projects or as a component of their email program (email customer). In email programs, clients can make individual, “manual” channels that at that point naturally channel mail as indicated by the picked criteria. In this paper, we introduce an overview of the execution of five regularly utilized machine learning strategies in spam separating. Most email projects now additionally have programmed spam separating capacity.