VOLUME 3 ISSUE 6 NOV-DEC 2015

1. A Survey on Face Detection and Facial Expression Recognition System

Authors- Rahul Katolkar, Kanak Kumar

Affiliation- Masters of Technology Scholar, Digital Communication, Millennium Institute of Technology, Bhopal, INDIA

Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Millennium Institute of Technology, Bhopal, INDIA, Email: kanakkumar.iitkgp@gmail.com

© Rahul Katolkar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Human face recognition is a very active area for research in the field of image processing. It is used to prevent many crimes and helps to provide public security. Since then, the rapid development of technology and the commercialization of technological achievements, face detection became more popular. One of the challenges in face recognition systems is to recognize faces around different poses and illuminations. In this paper, an Automatic Facial Expression Recognition System (AFERS) has been proposed. The proposed method has three stages: (a) face detection, (b) feature extraction and (c) facial expression recognition. The first phase of face detection involves skin color detection using YCbCr color model, lighting compensation for getting uniformity on face and morphological operations for retaining the required face portion. The output of the first phase is used for extracting facial features like eyes, nose, and mouth using AAM (Active Appearance Model) method. The third stage, automatic facial expression recognition, involves simple Euclidean Distance method. In this method, the Euclidean distance between

the feature points of the training images and that of the query image is compared. Based on minimum Euclidean distance, output image expression is decided.

Keywords- Face detection, Feature extraction, AAM, Expression recognition, Euclidean Distance

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2. Asymmetrical Cascaded Multilevel Converter with Reduced Number of Switches

Authors- Dr. K. Mekala, Manu. C

Affiliation- Assistant Professor, Mahendra College of Engineering, Salem, Tamilnadu, India, E-mail: mekalameiys@gmail.com

ME Student, Mahendra College of Engineering, Salem, Tamilnadu, India, E-mail: manukrishna.88@gmail.com

© Manu. C et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- A multilevel inverter is a power electronic device, used for high voltage and high power applications. Added to many advantages to make low switching stress and lower total harmonic distortion (THD). This help to reducing the size. This paper explained a new topology of a cascaded multilevel inverter that utilizes less number of switches and reduction in the gate driver circuits. A Fifteen and Twenty five level converter will be simulated and its effect on the harmonic spectrum will be analyzed. This will be modeled with the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The proposed Fifteen level multilevel inverter reducing the total harmonic distortion. The switching operation of semiconductor switches is used to improve the performance. This help to reduce the switching loss and also increase the efficiency.

Keywords: Cascaded Multilevel Converter, Different Levels, Decrease Harmonics Content, Improve Voltage Level.

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3. A Review: Improve Performance of Congestion Control in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

Authors- Khushbu, Dr. Ajay Khuteta

Affiliation- M.Tech Scholar, Poornima College of Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Professor, Department of Computer Science, Poornima College of Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

© Khushbu et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The wireless sensor network be compose of autonomous sensors & utilizes a medium that is allotted for surveillance of physical environment constituents like pressure, temperature, vibration, sound and allocates this data in the company of  a root station. Three basic elements of surveillance devices: storage, processing subsystem, & sensing subsystem. In this paper we enlarged an Efficient Energy rooted Overcrowding Control Scheme (EECCS) for overcrowding avoidance and to improve energy productivity of mobile junctions. In this portion the design of cross layer is cited to improve the network performance.

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4. A Review: Improve Performance of Face Detection and Smile Detection

Authors- Pragya Gupta, Sunil Kumar

Affiliation- M.Tech Scholar, R.I.E.T, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Assistant professor, Department of Computer Science Engineering., R.I.E.T, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

© Pragya Gupta et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Owing to the quick development of computer hardware design & software technology, user demands of electric products are increasing slowly. Variant from traditional user interface, like as keyboard & mouse, some new human computer interactive system such as multi-touch technology of Apple iPhone & touch screen support of Windows 7 are catching high & high awareness. For medical treatment, there are some eye-gaze tracking systems enlarged for cerebral palsy & multiple sclerosis patients. In this paper we give a idea for initiate a rank based classification algorithm that learns variations for dissimilar expressions variations to place the identity of a given face image best than Boosting algorithm. Owing to the lack of a public database containing both age & weight information.

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5. Multiple Regression: A Multivariate Technique to Study Bank Sector

Authors- Ms. Devina Upadhyay, Dr. Chetna Bhavsar

Affiliation- Research Scholar, Gujarat University, India

Associate Professor, Gujarat University, India

© Ms. Devina Upadhyay et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- A statistical tool that allows you to examine how multiple independent variables are related to dependent variable. We can predict the value of dependent variable using the equation which shows relationship between independent and dependent variables. This process is called “Multiple Regression”. Here in our data set 5 independent variables and 1 dependent variable is there.

Dependent variables: Loyalty

Independent Variables:  gender, age, education, income, occupation

To check establish the relationship bet independent and dependent we have used multiple regression analysis .to reach the result we have used statistical software SPSS and result shows that, in case of SBI age and income plays important role while in case of ICICI gender plays an important role.

Keywords:  Loyalty, independent variables, dependent variables, SPSS

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6. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) Based MAC Protocols Survey for the Next Generation WLAN

Authors- Santosh Kumar Narware, Kanak Kumar

Affiliation- Masters of Technology Scholar, Digital Communication, Millennium Institute of Technology, Bhopal, INDIA

Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Millennium Institute of Technology, Bhopal, INDIA, Email: kanakkumar.iitkgp@gmail.com

© Santosh Kumar Narware et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The proliferation of wireless communications systems poses new challenges in terms of coexistence between heterogeneous devices operating within the same frequency bands. In fact, in case of high-density concentration of wireless devices, like indoor environments, the network performance is typically limited by the mutual interference among the devices themselves, such as for wireless local area networks (WLANs). It is proved that the throughput is very low comparing to the PHY peak rate, and the media access control (MAC) efficiency is very low in the current WLANs specification, especially in dense deployment scenarios. Therefore, to achieve high MAC efficiency the IEEE Standards Association Standards Board (IEEE-SA) approves IEEE 802.11ax in March 2014, to draw up a brand new amendment for the next generation WLAN.

Keywords- Survey, Next Generation WLANs, IEEE 802.11ax, MAC, OFDMA

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7. Electrochemical Behavior of Biologically Active Indole Derivatives (I.E. 4-Hydroxy Indole)

Author- Anil Kumar

Affiliation- Department of Chemistry, Maharaj Singh College, Saharanpur-247001 (India), Email: anil21.1747@gmail.com

© Anil Kumar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Voltametric technique is most suitable to investigate the redox properties of a new drug. The use of electrochemistry is an important approach in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability and determination of physiological activity. Indole derivatives are well known electro active species that are readily oxidized at pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus analytical procedure, such as electrochemical detection and voltametry, have been developed for the determination of biologically active indoles. This paper explained some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry process and permits mainly related to biological active indole derivatives i.e. 4-Hydroxy indole in view of drug discovery and analysis.

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8. Performance Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Based On Game Theory

Authors- Suresha V., Dr. Shankaraiah

Affiliation- 1Research Scholar, Department of Electronics and Communication, SJCE, Mysuru-570 006.Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, INDIA.  E-mail: suresha.vee@gmail.com

2Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication, SJCE, Mysuru-06, E-mail: shankarsjce@gmail.com

© Suresha V. et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Future generation wireless networks are heterogeneous that will coexist and need a common IP core to offer a distinct range of high data rate multimedia services to end users since the networks have characteristics that complement each other. Users need a various multi-homed personal wireless devices will have the option of accessing their desired services via different available Networks. A major issue is need a seamless vertical handoff across the multi-service heterogeneous wireless access networks therefore mobile users roaming across different wireless networks. Network selection is a challenging task and is necessary when users want to migrate between heterogeneous networks and will influence the performance metrics of importance, for both service provider and subscriber. In this paper game theory based performance analysis of Vertical Handoff between WLAN-WiMAX integrated networks using Boltzmann-Gibbs based CODIPAS-RL algorithm through which better performance is obtained. The performance parameters such as Packer Error Rate (PER), throughput and delay for selecting a network are obtained.

Keywords- Game Theory, AODV, WLAN Heterogeneous Networks, WiMAX, LTE, UMTS, Boltzmann-Gibbs, CODIPAS-RL

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9. Performance Analysis of Varying Cyclic Prefix Length on M-Ary PSK, QAM and PAM Based OFDM Systems under Fading Channel Conditions

Authors- Anita Jamliya, Ashish Kumar Parashar

Affiliation- 1Department of Electronics, UITBU Bhopal, Email: anitajamliya@gmail.com

2Department of Electronics, UITBU Bhopal, Email: ashishkumarparashar@gmail.com

© Anita Jamliya et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In this paper, impacts of cyclic prefix (CP) are researched for M-ary PSK, QAM and PAM for used in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems under AWGN and Fading channels. Utilization of CP as the guard interval is a fundamental approach to avoid the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and the inter-carrier interference (ICI). However the CP also has adverse impact that it reduces the transmission efficiency because some extra bits are needed for such transmission, and the length of these bits increases for channels showing long channel-impulse response (CIR), furthermore these channel also increases the ICI. In this paper we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance for different modulation schemes used in OFDM with different CP length and channel conditions by simulating these systems under Matlab environment.

Keywords- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), cyclic prefix (CP), AWGN.

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10. Comparison of Seismic Susceptibility Assessment of Low to Medium Rise RC Buildings by Considering the Effect of Shearwall

Authors- Mr. Muralidhar G.B, Mrs. Swathirani K.S

Affiliation- 1Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, Email: gb.murali09@gmail.com

2Asst.Prof, Civil Engineering Department, East West Institute of Technology, Karnataka, India, Email: swathiraniks@email.com

© Muralidhar G.B et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- This paper summarizes state-of-the-art of the review in the seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings consisting of low rise, medium rise and high rise building frames.  These building frames are designed for gravity load combinations as per IS 456-2000. Detailed seismic vulnerability evaluation is a technically complex and expensive procedure and cannot be identified the deficiencies using qualitative methods. Hence in order to account for the exact behavior of buildings with shear wall, it is mandatory to perform the various available analytical tools. Buildings with and without shear wall may have varied seismic performances. In the present analytical investigation two kinds of models are considered, namely bare frame and building with shear wall consisting of G+2 to G+8 storey buildings frames. The various analytical approaches (linear and non-linear analysis) are performed on these models to identify the seismic demands. It is also examined that the effect of shear wall on the seismic performances of low, medium and high rise RC (reinforced concrete) buildings have been investigated using pushover analysis at different performance levels. The comparison of both the analysis for the considered models by using finite element software package ETAB’s 9.7 version has been illustrated, detailed and tabulated in this report. Also the models are analyzed for buildings located in seismic zone V as per IS 1893:2002(Part 1). Load combinations considered in the analysis are as per IS 456:2000 and IS 1893:2002 (Part 1). For comparison purpose, same storey stiffness and loads have been maintained throughout and tabulated the obtained results in terms of variations of time period, story drift, base shear, and top roof drift and performance points.

Keywords: Story drift, Base Shear, Stiffness.

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11. Analysis of Dual Buck Half Bridge Voltage Balancer

Authors- Nikunj N Dave, Raj J Patel

Affiliation- 1M.E. (Electrical Engineering), H.G.C.E, Vehlal, Ahmedabad

2Assistant Professor, M.E. (Electrical Engineering) H.G.C.E, Vehlal, Ahmedabad

© Nikunj N Dave et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In this paper, a dual-buck half-bridge voltage balancer and a control strategy are proposed, which can avoid the shoot-through problem. The current relationships of the inductors; the capacitors are analyzed particularly. Micro-dc grid is a novel power system focused on the development of renewable resources. However, two-wire transmitting power mode is generally accepted in a micro-dc grid, which is usually not suitable for the requirements of the input voltage levels of different power converters and loads. In order to meet the requirements, a half-bridge voltage balancer was introduced in a micro-dc grid, which can convert a two-wire mode into a three-wire mode in a micro-dc grid via a neutral line.

Keywords: Buck Converter, DC Distribution System, Half Bridge, Micro-DC grid, Voltage Balancer.

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12. Wind Energy Inverter with Facts Capability for Control of Power Factor In Distributed Energy Systems

Authors- V. P. N. Prasad, Dayakar Kande

Affiliation-1M.Tech,Power Electronics, Geethanjali Engineering College, A.P, India, Email: prasad_vpn@yahoo.co.in

2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Geethanjali Engineering College, A.P, India, Email: dayakar.kande@gmail.com

© V.P.N. Prasad et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In this paper, a new single-phase wind energy inverter (WEI) with flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) capability is presented. The proposed inverter is placed between the wind turbine and the grid, same as a regular WEI, and is able to regulate active and reactive power transferred to the grid. This inverter is equipped with distribution static synchronous compensators option in order to control the power factor (PF) of the local feeder lines. Using the proposed inverter for small-to medium- size wind applications will eliminate the use of capacitor banks as well as FACTS devices to control the PF of the distribution lines. The goal of this paper is to introduce new ways to increase the penetration of renewable energy systems into the distribution systems. This will encourage the utilities and customers to act not only as a consumer, but also as a supplier of energy. Moreover, using the new types of converters with FACTS capabilities will significantly reduce the total cost of the renewable energy application. In this paper, modular multilevel converter is used as the desired topology to meet all the requirements of a single-phase system such as compatibility with IEEE standards, total harmonic distortion (THD), efficiency, and total cost of the system. The proposed control strategy regulates the active and reactive power using power angle and modulation index, respectively. The function of the proposed inverter is to transfer active power to the grid as well as keeping the PF of the local power lines constant at a target PF regardless of the incoming active power from the wind turbine. The simulations for an 11-level inverter have been done in MATLAB/ Simulink. To validate the simulation results, a scaled prototype model of the proposed inverter has been built and tested. The function of the proposed inverter is to transfer active power to the grid as well as keeping the PF of the local power lines constant at a target PF regardless of the incoming active power from the wind turbine. The simulations for an11-level inverter have been done in MATLAB/ Simulink. To validate the simulation results, a scaled prototype model of the proposed inverter has been built and tested.

Keywords: modular multilevel converter (MMC), proposed control strategy and its detailed study.

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13. Antioxidant and Antifungal Potential of Morus Alba Leaf Extract Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Authors- 1K. Adavallan, 2N. Rajendra Prasad, 1N. Krishnakumar

Affiliation- 1Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu- 608 002, India

2Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu- 608 002, India

© K. Adavallan et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using plant extract have  been  suggested  as  possible  eco-friendly  alternatives  to  chemical  and  physical  methods. Present study reports a green chemistry approach for the synthesis of AuNPs using the aqueous leaf extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.). The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. UV–visible spectroscopic studies confirm the formation of AuNPs  through  color  conversion  due  to  surface  plasmon  resonance  band  at  537  nm. The  results  obtained from HR-TEM revealed  that  the synthesized  AuNPs  were  in  the  size range  of  15-53  nm.  Further, SAED pattern clearly show the pure crystalline nature of the synthesized AuNPs. Furthermore, biosynthesized AuNPs nanoparticles exhibited strong antioxidant activity such as DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavengers compared to the mulberry leaf extract alone. In addition, the biosynthesized AuNPs shows good antifungal activity against human pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata).  Therefore, the present study thus suggests that the preparation of AuNPs using mulberry leaf extract provides strong antioxidant and antifungal activity and it has great potential in the preparation of drugs for various diseases.

Keywords: Biosynthesis; Mulberry leaf extract; Gold nanoparticles

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14. Compression Behaviour of Elasto-Plastic Pipeline in Offshore Application

Authors- 1Swati Shankar, 2Om Prakash, 3Avanish Mishra

Affiliation- 1M.Tech Scholar (Construction & Management), Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

2Research Guide & Head of Department, Department of Civil Engineering, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan             

3Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

© Swati Shankar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In an offshore application, the effects of elasto plastic pipes offer a continuous support and the response of these pipes is adverse when certain objects were dropped over it causing a transverse impacts. This paper involves extensive study of this elasto plastic pipe and its sealing to avoid leakage in offshore application. Various data had been collected and tested from various researchers and a numerical model is studied and it impact over elasto plastic pipe, behaviour due to internal pressure which is placed over a flexible bed. Numerous other factors like geometry, boundary conditions, internal and external pressure, and depth of orientation and placement of pipe under sea were examined and its effects were determined. This paper mainly focuses on the damages which are caused due these effects and reducing the causes of damage of these elasto plastic pipes by improving its compression behaviour in offshore applications. Also it is found that the pipe bed flexibility plays a major role in energy dissipation factor.

Keywords: Elasto-Plastic Pipe, Compression Behaviour, Offshore Application and Pipe Bed.

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15. Micropile for Embankment Foundation- An Innovative Technique

Authors- 1Dipali P. Doshi, 2Dr. Atul K. Desai, 3Dr. C. H. Solanki

Affiliation- 1Lecturer, Applied Mechanics Department, The M. S. University, Vadodara, Gujarat, INDIA, Email: doshidipali2000@yahoo.co.in  

2Professor, Applied Mechanics Deptt., S.V.N.I.T., Surat, Gujarat, India, Email: akd@amd.svnit.ac.in

3Professor, Applied Mechanics Deptt., S.V.N.I.T., Surat, Gujarat, India, Email: chs@amd.svnit.ac.in

© Dipali P. Doshi et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Many historic structures were built when there was less knowledge of seismic design, and building codes were less restrictive. During earthquake they have damaged and the extensive damage of these structures motivated to find some retrofitting techniques which keep the structure safe. Micropiles are increasingly being used to retrofit this type of structures and deep foundations. They are gaining popularity for foundation support and slope stabilization due to their ready access to installation in locations with low headroom and restricted access. They can be used to drill through any type of soils, boulders and hard materials. They are installed without risking the stability of structure. Slope failures are significant hazards to public and private infrastructure, and their maintenance and repair is costly. In this paper a modeling of an embankment under the static loading is done using the Midas GTS software. The embankment is reinforced with micropiles and a reduction in the settlement between the treated and untreated embankment at different depth of the embankment is presented in this paper. Here the micropiles having diameter 200mm and a length of 14m are used.

Keywords: Micropiles, Retrofitting, Midas GTS software, settlement.

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16. Cost Control in Construction Planning on Site

Authors- 1Anuranjan Kumar, 2Prof (Dr.) Om Prakash Netula, 3Avanish Mishra

Affiliation- 1M.Tech, Construction & Management, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

2Head of Department, Department of Civil Engineering, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

3Associate Professor, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

© Anuranjan Kumar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Cost control and schedule control are two of the most important management functions in the construction industry. Major research efforts are focused on developing procedures for improving the effectiveness of cost and schedule control. As a result, researchers are concerned with the quality, integrity, and timeliness of data that flow through such control systems. A number of data models have been proposed to integrate cost- and schedule-control functions, because such integration is viewed as the, solution to the many problems facing construction projects today. This paper provides an overview of cost- and schedule-control functions, defines the desired control cycle, and discusses the problems and needs of cost- and schedule-control functions. A number of integrated cost- and schedule- control data models, which represent the state of construction research in this area, are discussed. The work-packaging model is briefly described and is suggested as the most likely existing model to achieve the desired cost and schedule integration. Finally, the conceptual design of a foundational data model for control, based on relational concepts, is provided. The recommended design adopts the conceptual structures of the work-packaging model.

Despite the availability of various control techniques and project control software many construction projects still do not achieve their cost and time objectives. Research in this area so far has mainly been devoted to identifying causes of cost and time overruns. There is limited research geared at studying factors inhibiting the ability of practitioners to effectively control their projects. To fill this gap, a survey was conducted on 250 construction project organizations in the UK, which was followed by face-to-face interviews with experienced practitioners from 15 of these organizations.

The common factors that inhibit both time and cost control during construction projects were firstly identified. Subsequently 90 mitigating measures have been developed for the top five leading inhibiting factors – design changes, risks/uncertainties, inaccurate evaluation of project time/duration, complexities and non-performance of subcontractors were recommended. These mitigating measures were classified as: preventive, predictive, corrective and organizational measures. They can be used as a checklist of good practice and help project managers to improve the effectiveness of control of their projects.

Keyword: Cost control, interview, practice, project control, project management.

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17. Stability Analysis of Multi-Machine SMIB System

Authors- 1Umashankar Vishnoi, 2B. S. S. P. M. Sharma

Affiliation- 1, 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Mewar University, Gangrar, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, INDIA, E-mail: umeshvishnoi19@gmail.com

© Umashankar Vishnoi et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Transient stability analysis has always been an issue of paramount important in power system planning and operation. Basically stability analysis method may be categorized by two major stability analysis methods. A small signal stability and transient stability transient stability method can be further divided into numerical integration and direct method. Many techniques have been proposed for transient stability analysis in power system. Purpose of this paper is to study and investigate transient stability analysis is extended for transient stability analysis of multi-machine power system. It is a tool to identify stable and unstable condition of power system after fault clearing by the help of differential equation.

Keywords- Multi-machine Power System, MATLAB Simulink, Transient Stability, Damping Numerical Method, Swing Equation.

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18. Some Quadrature Methods for Approximate Evaluation of Definite Integrals for Real Variables

Author- Kishor kumar Prusty

Affiliation- Department of Mathematics, Hindol College, Khajuriakata, Dhenkanal, PIN-759020 Odisha, India, E-mail: kishorprusty2011@gmail.com, Mob: +91-9937757389

© Kishor Kumar Prusty et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- A quadrature rule of degree of precision seven has been formulated taking the linear convex combination of two constituent rules of degree of precision five. The rule is numerically verified with some suitable texts and error bound is determined.

Keywords: Quadrature rule, Degree of precision, Maclaurin’s theorem, Error bound.

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19. Enhancing the Performance and Security of Network

Authors- 1Deepak Soni, 2Kaushal Prasad

Affiliation- 1, 2 Department of Electronics & Communication, SR Group of Institution, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

Email Id- Deepak.soni0610@gmail.com

© Deepak Soni et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- An access control list (ACL) provides security for a private network by controlling the flow of incoming and outgoing packets. Specifically, a network policy is created in the form of a sequence of (possibly conflicting) rules. Each packet is compared against this ACL, and the first rule that the packet matches defines the decision for that packet. The size of ACLs has been increasing rapidly due to the explosive growth of Internet-based applications and malicious attacks. This increase in size degrades network performance and increases management complexity. I

Keywords: ACL, cisco, packet tracer, rule, router etc.

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20. Review & Study of Bidirectional of DC-DC Converter Topologies for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors- 1Akash Pathak, 2Vikas Sahu

Affiliation- 1M.E. Scholar, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Shri Shankaracharya Technical Campus (SSTC), SSGI (FET) Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India, Email: akash8163@email.com

2Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and telecommunication, Shri Shankaracharya Technical Campus (SSTC), SSGI (FET) Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India, Email: vikas.lakshya@gmail.com

© Akash Pathak et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The inclusion of bidirectional DC-DC converter between the electric source and traction motor in Electric Vehicles facilitates the energy regeneration during braking and during motion along downhill slope. This inclusion can improve traction drive efficiency as much as by 25%, which improves the whole driving range. Now to reduce the weight, size and the cost of system, proper bidirectional DC-DC converter topology should be selected so as to optimize the design performance. This paper reviews and the study of the basic bidirectional DC-DC converter topology and presents the comparative advantages and disadvantages for arriving at the proper design decision for Electric Vehicle traction application.

Keywords: Regenerative braking, traction energy, Electric Vehicle.

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21. Seismic Appraisal of Performance of RC Building with Immense Irregularity in Floor Masses

Authors- 1Muralidhar G.B, 2Swathi Rani K.S, 3Pradeep Kote R

Affiliation- 1Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, Email: gb.murali09@gmail.com

2Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, East West Institute of Technology, Karnataka, India, Email: swathiraniks@gmail.com

3Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, HKBK Institute of Technology, Karnataka, India

© Muralidhar G.B et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Mass irregularity is the presence of heavy mass on a floor or when one floor is much heavier than the others, e.g., heavy machinery or a swimming pool installed on an intermediate floor of a building. This paper includes the slab thickness i.e., floor mass is varying. Slab thickness is increased at alternative floors in mass irregular buildings. 0.15 m slab thickness is taken for the without mass irregular buildings and for mass irregular buildings slab thickness is taken as 0.30m.In light of these facts, it is imperative to seismically evaluate building with the present day knowledge to avoid the major destruction in the future earthquakes. This paper is concerned with the comparison of the seismic appraisal of RC buildings with and without mass irregularity, the method carried out in terms of equivalent static, response spectrum and pushover analysis according to IS 1893:2002(part1) code, G+2 to G+8 storey buildings are considered for the analysis. In this analysis for mass irregular buildings, the floor mass is varied at 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th floor of all the buildings. The comparison of equivalent static response spectrum method and pushover analysis by using finite element software package ETAB’s 9.7 version is used to perform the modeling and analysis of G+2 to G+8 storey buildings by considering the seismic zone V as per IS 1893:2002(part 1) code. In this study building model analysis carried out namely gravity, equivalent static, response spectrum & pushover analysis in longitudinal direction & transverse direction and the results are compared with codal values. Results of this analysis are discussed in terms of the time period, storey displacement, storey drift and base shear. From this results it is concluded that time period, storey displacement, storey drift and base shear will be more in mass irregular buildings compare with the without mass irregular buildings.

Keywords: Equivalent Static, Pushover analysis, Storey drifts etc.

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22. Comparison of Performance of Multi Leaf Springs of Automobile after Changing Its Cross Section

Authors- 1Yogesh Sharma, 2Dr. V.N. Bartaria

Affiliation- 1M.Tech. Scholar, Industrial Design, LNCT College, Bhopal, INDIA, Email: yogishru@gmail.com

2Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering, LNCT College, Bhopal, INDIA

© Yogesh Sharma et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Automotive Industry is now a day is emerging with new implementations and techniques through the extraordinary ordinary researches that have resulted in existence of new materials and various optimized techniques. In this research paper Multi leaf soaring is chosen for the optimization process as the improvement in the multi leaf spring can result in betterment of existing multi leaf spring user vehicles. In vehicles Multi Leaf Springs accounts 10 % – 20 % of the unspring Weight and also an important suspension device used to provide passengers the comfort and safety while driving. Leaf Spring is used in various categories of Vehicles such as Light Commercial Vehicles and heavy duty Commercial Vehicles as a suspension System to resist jerks due to ups and downs while driving. Among different types of springs commonly used in automotive industry Multi leaf spring is one of the common types. These consist of narrow plates of different types and sizes. These leaf springs are usually thick in middle and tapered outward at the end. Various Leaf spring users use these multiple leaf springs to tow heavier loads at the end of their vehicles. Multi Leaf Spring consists of various leaf of varying lengths in line at the top of each other. The shorter the leaf spring closer to the bottom it will be giving it the same semielliptical shape a single leaf spring gets from being thicker in the middle.

For this research work the design dimensions of the existing convention leaf spring are taken and Results are observed after changing the cross Section of the Leaf Spring without changing its existing material properties to provide better and Optimized results for which Catia V5 R20 software is used for modeling and analysis is performed using ANSYS 14.5.

Keywords: – Computer aided engineering (CAE), Finite element analysis, Cross Section, Multi leaf spring.

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23. The Impact of Values-Based Branding (VBB) On the Strategic Sustainability Decision of the Supply Chain Management as A Superior Competitive Advantage

Author- Mahmoud Ahmady Ramadan

Affiliation- Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport, 23 Dr. ElSobki Street, Dokki, P.O. Box: 12311, Giza, Egypt

© Mahmoud Ahmady Ramadan et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Nowadays, business strategy is commonly associated with sustainability. There is increasing evidence that aligning the interests of all stakeholders often leads to better (financial) results. Examining sustainability from the supply chain point of view is a common enough exercise. However it must be noted that business strategy and marketing strategy are not always one and the same thing, (Horlings, 2010).

And, In fact, the real competition today is not between companies, but between supply chains. The winning approach to supply chains is an integrated perspective that takes account of networks of relationships, sustainability and product design, as well as the logistics of procurement, distribution, and fulfillment, (Christopher 2010)

This paper looks at how VBB contribute to the whole firm’s strategy and how brand planning needs to be geared as a strategic role to supply chain management’s central objective of creating shareholder value.  So how does a company start adding value to their SCM?  Should they focus on building their corporate   brand or just developing labeling for individual product or focus on operational efficiency in their supply chains and build collaborative partnerships?

Keywords: Branding, S SCM, Competitive Advantage, Sustainability, Sustainable branding.

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24. Simultaneous Face Detection and Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks for Identity Verification: A Survey

Authors- 1Bipin Kumar Yadav, 2Kanak Kumar, 3Sanjay Sharma

Affiliation- 1Masters of Technology Scholar, Digital Communication, MITS, Bhopal, India, Email: bipiny46@gmail.com

2Assistant Professor, MITS, Bhopal, India, Email: kanakkumar.iitkgp@gmail.com

3Assistant Professor, MITS, Bhopal, India

© Bipin Kumar Yadav et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The rapid development of technology and the commercialization of technological achievements, face detection became more popular. One of the challenges in face recognition systems is to recognize faces around different poses and illuminations. Its popularity is due to wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications and presence of latest techniques. It also has several applications in areas such as content-based image retrieval, video coding, video conferencing, crowd surveillance, and intelligent human–computer interfaces. But current systems are having laggings, which still needed to be worked upon like illumination and pose variations The face recognition phases include image preprocessing, feature extraction and clustering. Also the system used Artificial Neural Networks in recognizing faces detected from the input. The system also performs at its best if the person is directly facing the camera or at 0 degrees with respect to the camera.

Keywords – Face Detection, Face Recognition, Artificial Neural Networks, Image Processing

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25. Impedance Based Image Analysis of Field Distribution inside a Closed Phantom Using EIDORS

Authors- Prabhakar S. Manage

Affiliation- Assistant Professor, K.L.E Society’s Dr. M. S. Sheshgiri College of Engineering & Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka, India, Email: prabhakarenc@yahoo.com

© Prabhakar S. Manage et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non invasive medical imaging technique which constructs the electrical impedance distribution image of the cross section of a body based on current excitation and voltage measurement from an array of electrodes.

This paper describes the implementation of electrical impedance tomography in the field of biomedical engineering which involves the  development  and  performance evaluation  of EIT  system in  detecting  foreign object  like non hardening clay and  metal  object  in the   water  bath contained in plastic object. This system uses electrode in differential mode encircling a water container which is used for voltage injection and voltage measurement. This voltage data is used to reconstruct the conductivity profile of image by using Electrical   Impedance   and   Diffuse   Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) package available in MATLAB.

Keywords: Electrical Impedance Tomography, EIT, Biomedical, EIDORS, and MATLAB. 

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26. Water Distribution Network’s Modelling and Calibration

Authors- 1Snehal Kadgaonkar, 2P. T. Nimbalkar, 3D. R. Kulkarni

Affiliation- 1M.Tech Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering, Pune, India, Email: snehalkadgaonkar@ymail.com

2Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering, Pune, India.  Email: ptnimbalkar@bvucoep.edu.in

3Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering, Pune, India. Email: drkulkarni@bvucoep.edu.in

© Snehal Kadgaonkar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Water is an inestimable natural resource and is essential for all life on the planet. But the natural resources have been exploited, mistreated and contaminated and hence management of water is a really challenging task in developing countries to make sure every customer is getting sufficient and good quality of drinking water. Increases in population and climate change are main reasons for an ever increasing demand on water supply system. Since water resources are definite, it requires proper management and supply.

This paper focuses on modelling and calibration of water distribution network which can be used for further analysis like pressure optimization, growth studies etc. A trial and error process is used for the calibration of network. The paper describes the path followed through the hydraulic model build up to final calibrated model, including importing of the assets, the definition of network zones and measures taken for the calibration using EAPNET tool.

Keywords: Calibration, Critical point, District metering area, High performance polyethylene pipe, Hydraulic model build, Pressure reducing valve, Water distribution network.

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27. A Review: Mobile Data Offloading By LTE Offloading Scheme

Author- Laxmi Devi

Affiliation- Masters of Technology Scholar, Chandravati Group of Institutions Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India

© Laxmi Devi et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Wi-Fi offloading is regarded as one of the most promising techniques for dealing with the explosive data increase in cellular networks due to its high data transmission rate and low requirement on devices. In this thesis, we investigate the mobile data offloading problem through a third-party Wi-Fi access point (AP) for a cellular mobile system. In particular, we consider three scenarios:

1) Successive interference cancellation (SIC) available at both the base station (BS) and the AP. According to base paper utility of operator is 10 Mbps when the numbers of users are maximum by threshold -based distributed data offloading scheme.

2) SIC available at neither the BS nor the AP. Base paper proposed threshold -based distributed data offloading scheme. When the SIC decoder is available at BS (base station) and AP(Access point ) then the utility of the operator is near about 7-8 Mbps .

3) SIC available at only the BS.

In this paper, we suggest LTE offloading scheme improves the performance of the cellular operator maximize its utility. According to the proposed methodology, LTE offloading scheme utility of the operator will increase for all the three scenarios.

Keywords- Access point, Base station, Long Term Evolution.

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28. Integrated Action Plan for Improvement of Drainage Congested Areas and Mitigation of Flood and Waterlogged areas using Geoinformatics: a Case Study of Gonda District, Uttar Pradesh

Authors- 1Karunesh Kumar Shukla, 2Purnima Sharma, 3A. K. Agarwal

Affiliation- 1Research Scholar in MGCGV, Chitrakoot University, Email ID: karunesh.shkl@gmail.com, Contact No: +91-9795013310

2Research Scholar, Department Of Geology, University Of Lucknow, Lucknow, India, Email ID: purnimasharma87@gmail.com, Contact No: +91-8004288155

3Scientist-SE, PM-DMC & LIDAR, Remote Sensing Applications Centre-U.P., Lucknow, India, Email ID: agarwalak15@rediffmail.com, Contact No: +91 9335281198

© Karunesh Kumar Shukla et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Floods are the most commonly occurring disaster in Uttar Pradesh, affecting almost every year some part of the state or the other. In 2013, 65 districts of Uttar Pradesh were affected by floods and water logging covering an area of 549524 ha and a total of 15132 villages. Gonda district has been affected by severe flood and water logging every year. A total of 237 villages in 10 blocks were affected by river flood and water logging in 2013 covering an area of 77965 ha (Technical Report, RSAC-UP: SWRD: 2014:01, 2013-14). This flood situation interrupted over all development of the district. The present study is an attempt to identify the causing factors and some suitable remedial measures for overall improvement in the flood and water logging problems of Gonda district with the help of Geoinformatics.

Keywords: Flood, Water logging, Monsoon, Run-off, Geoinformatics.

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29. Performance Analysis of Routing Information Protocol Version 2 and EIGRP

Authors- 1Deepak Soni, 2Kaushal Prasad

Affiliation- 1, 2Department of Electronics & Communication, SR Group of Institution, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA, Email Id- Deepak.soni0610@gmail.com

© Deepak Soni et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network.  Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route. Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network..  RIP is classified as a distance-vector routing protocol, which employs the hop count as a routing metric, the maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15[3]. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance viewing such distance as unreachable and undesirable route in it routing process.

Keywords- Routing Protocols RIP, IGRP, EIGRP.

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30. An Experimental Study of Rectangular T-Shaped Footing Subjected to Dynamic Load

Authors- 1Rishikesh Ranadive, 2H. K. Mahiyar

Affiliation- 1PG Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, S.G.S.I.T.S, 23 Park Road Indore, India.

2Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, S.G.S.I.T.S, 23 Park Road Indore, India.

© Rishikesh Ranadive et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In this paper the behavior of Rectangular T-Shaped footing under dynamic load is analyzed. The set of experiments are carried out to understand the behavior. The experimental set up consists of two Rectangular T-Shaped footing test models (80mm x 60mm and 80mm x 50mm in plan and different D/B &D/L projection) tested at the surface of a box (400mm x 400mm in plan and 250mm depth) filled with dry sand. The box is shaken at its base with a sequence of harmonic excitations of various durations of shaking at constant frequency and amplitude. In this contribution the experiments are simulated using a simplified approach consisting of single degree of freedom structure founded on granular soil with 3 degree of freedom (vertical, horizontal and tilting).

Keywords- Rectangular T-Shaped footing, depth to length ratio, depth to width ratio.

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31. Strength Evaluation of Cement Concrete Using Bottom Ash as a Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregates

Authors- 1Abhishek Sachdeva, 2Gobind Khurana

Affiliation- 1Student, DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India, Email: abhishek.sachdeva1990@gmail.com

2Assistant Professor, DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India, Email:  civil.gobind@gmail.com

© Abhishek Sachdeva et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- The natural sources of river sand are getting depleted gradually. Mining of sand also leads to various environmental hazards. The demand for the protection of the natural environment and the ban on mining in some areas is further aggravating the problem of availability of river sand. Bottom ash is a by-product of combustion of pulverized coal composed of mainly silica, alumina and iron with small amounts of calcium, magnesium sulphate, etc. The appearance and particle size distribution of coal bottom ash is similar to that of river sand. These properties of bottom ash make it attractive to be used as fine aggregate in the production of concrete. This paper presents the experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of use of coal bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregates in concrete. An experimental program is planned in which controlled concrete of grade M40 is prepared. Fine aggregate is partially replaced with coal bottom ash by 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and the properties of concrete such as workability, compressive strength and flexural strength are evaluated. The test results of this research work indicate that coal bottom ash is a suitable material to be used as fine aggregates. Workability decreases with the increase in levels of sand replacement by coal bottom ash in concrete. Both, the compressive strength and flexural strength were not strongly affected upto 20% replacement level. Therefore, 20% of fine aggregates may be replaced with coal bottom ash and a concrete with good strength may be produced with coal bottom ash in concrete.

Keywords: Coal bottom ash, compressive strength, flexural strength, concrete etc.

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32. Data Transmission and Reception Using Text Steganography with Error Detection

Authors- 1Ankita Sharma, 2Anjana Sangwan

Affiliation- 1M.Tech Scholar, Computer Science Engineering, Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Rajasthan, India, Email: ankitasharma1989@yahoo.com

2Senior Lecturer, Computer Science Engineering, Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Rajasthan, India, Email: sangwan.anjana@gmail.com

© Ankita Sharma et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- In the research area of text steganography and cryptography, most dominant part was the key used for the hiding, encrypting and placing a data into another data is very crucial, also it is important that an algorithm should not have any limitations regarding the bits size of the secret data, case sensitivity or it should not be language bounded. Approach implemented in this paper suggests the use of text information and cover text to be combined and formed in such a way that it can be used or transformed into any other format including images, audio or into any other multimedia file. Along with the format transformation hiding the encryption key is another important feature of this approach, as the key used for encrypting and hiding data into another data is combined with the transmitted data that it should not be visible from the outside and should not represent any separate data as such.

Keywords: Steganography, cryptography and encryption.

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34. Correction of Power Factor by Single Inductor Three-Level Bridgeless Boost Converter

Authors- 1Kailash Parihar, 2R. K. Gupta

Affiliation- 1M.Tech. Scholar, Power System, Department of Electrical Engineering, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India.

2Associate Professor, Department of Electrical engineering Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India.

© Kailash Parihar et al.; licensee International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract- Single inductor three-level bridgeless boost power factor correction boost converter is proposed with a natural voltage clamp & that can be treated in series by applying the two boost converter. In this paper proposed converter can be charged & discharged in the different boost sub –circuits. For slow down the operation two diodes is used as for the converter operating performance, in alter of the used rectifier diodes. It has a high utilization factor in one circuit with having the one inductor.

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