Embedded Based Estimation of State of Charge of Battery
Authors: 1C. Premkumar, 2 E. Ramya
1UG Student, Department of Electronics and Electronics Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode district, India.
2Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Electronics Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode district, India
Batteries are employed as the source of power in many devices and instruments. In case of supplying DC voltage, batteries are used since DC can be stored in battery. Moreover it is used in portable devices and employed in EV (electric vehicles). Nowadays, the automobiles use the battery as the source of energy. But the charge of the battery will discharge when it is used or it may get self discharge due to certain problem in it. It is essential to know the battery state at any time, so that the device works properly and efficiently. This is termed as “state of charge” referred as SoC. The health of the battery cannot be found by seeing it physically. So it is necessary to develop a method to find it. Herewith, a method is being proposed to determine the SoC of a battery by measuring the battery voltage using the microcontroller by adopting voltage division technique.
Keywords: Batteries, State of Charge, microcontroller
6. Design, Development and Analysis of Hinged Arm Suspension by Bondgraph Simulation Technique for Comfort Ride on Vehicle
Authors: 1Manoj Kumar Singh, 2Bharat Raj Singh
1Research Scholar, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow, E-mail: email@example.com, Mob: +91-9452157240
2Director General, School of Management Sciences, Technical Campus, Lucknow, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Mob: +91-9415025825.
This model has then been extended to a hinged arm suspension vehicle car model with two sets of springs and dashpots across the hinge. The model has been successfully compiled showing the logical correctness of the model. A few results have also been obtained more results from the model created can be obtained by giving relevant inputs. The efforts here examine the modeling of automobile suspensions, specially that may be useful in future to bring in active control systems etc..A vehicle car model of a conventional suspension using Bondgraphs has been created first for modeling heave and rocking motion of a car as it passes over a bump on the road. The results are specially obtained for a case where published value is available. Hinged arm suspensions have been around for quite some time. However, they become important for introducing active computerized control of vehicles. It has used a model without active elements but two sets of springs and dashpots. While a successful compilation of the Bondgraph on the software (Symbol Shakti).A more systematic activity can be carried out of study the benefit of the hinged arm suspension under comfort ride a vehicle conditions, through the model created.
Keywords: Comfort ride on vehicle,hinged arm suspension, symbolshakti; bondgraph;
7. Crow Search Algorithm Tuned Fuzzy PI Controllers of Multi Source Multi Area Load Frequency Control
Authors: 1Aditya Kumar Nanda, 2Pritish Panda
1M.Tech EE Student, VSSUT Burla, Email: email@example.com
2M.Tech EE Student, VSSUT Burla, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
As the power demand in the present day changes so does the network is getting more and more complex which results in more interconnected areas with varieties of generation techniques. Automatic load frequency control (LFC) is needed in power system for the sake of stability and reliability. It regulates the power output to maintain the frequency balanced when there is a sudden change in load occurs. This paper introduces a new metaheuristic algorithm known Crow search algorithm (CSA) based Fuzzy-PI controller for the optimal tuning of controller parameters. The power system model is to be considered in this paper is a two area six units type multi source one. Both the areas have a thermal reheat generation, a hydro generation and a gas turbine. The superiority of the proposed controller is compared with differential evolution(DE) and CSA based PID controller taking the settling time (Ts), peak overshoot (Osh) and peak undershoot (Ush) of tie line power and the frequencies of concerned areas.
Index Terms—LFC, Fuzzy-PI, CSA, Area Control Error(ACE)
8. A Study of Fractal Dimension of Image
Authors: 1Neha Jha, 2Dr Mandeep Kaur
A Fractal Dimension (FD) deals with irregular shape of any object such as an image, it described as an index for characterizing fractal object by qualifying by the object’s ratio of transformation as the complexity and in detail to transformation in respective scale. The fractal Dimension of image with irregular shape and can be representing the computation of FD via Euclidean dimension sets. There are different types of method of FD and have different application in different area like medical, human physiology, market trends, river networks, urban growth, turbulence etc. FD is widely used for image processing, image compression, image segmentation, image classification.
Index Terms: Fractal, Fractal Dimension, Image Processing, Image Compression, Image Segmentation, Image Classification.