1. IMPROVED FRAMEWORK FOR REVERSIBLE DATA HIDING IN ENCRYPTED IMAGES
Authors- M.REBECCAL ANGEL, BAVIREDDY RASAGNA
Abstract- Nowadays, lot of attention is paid towards reversible data hiding (RDH) in the encrypted images, since it retains the property that the original image can be recovered after the secret data is retrieved in a lossless manner. Protecting multimedia data became a major issue in these days. That protection can be provided by developing reversible data hiding algorithms. Information can be sending to correct destination without any interruption. High capacity data hiding algorithms have been developed recently, but they are not apt for applications in encrypted images. So reversible data hiding algorithms are developed to hide data in encrypted images and it retrieves the hidden data and the cover image with reduced loss than basic data hiding algorithms. Previously, data hiding subject to embed the secret data by vacating space after encrypting the image that leads to errors in the receiver side. A novel method for reversible data hiding is proposed by vacating space before encryption and then embedding the data.Vacating space is done by performing the partition process followed by selfreversible embedding that leads to encryption stage. This method makes the hiding process easier than previous methods. Before performing the encryption process, space is created in the cover image for the secret data to be hidden. And then encryption is performed by any of the traditional methods.Later, data is hided into the encrypted image. By the proposed approach, the embedding performance is improved than previous methods.The proposed method can perform well even for large payloads with constant image quality. The proposed algorithm produces reduced error value than previous algorithms.
Index terms: Security Enabled Data Hiding, Secured Image Transfer, Image Encryption, Image Restoration, Data Extraction.
2. COMMUNITY ANALYSIS OF COLLEMBOLA IN A NATURAL FOREST AND JHUMLAND ECOSYSTEM OF MOKOKCHUNG, NAGALAND
Authors- KRUOLALIE TSURHO, BENDANG AO, VETSELO DUOLO
Abstract- The present study was carried out in two adjacent areas of a natural forest and jhumland ecosystems in Mopungchuket village and Chuchuyimpang village respectively, under Mokokchung district, Nagaland, which lies at 26o 11′ 36” North latitude and in between 94o 17′ 44” to 94o 45′ 42’’ (E) longitude. The study was conducted during January 2009 to December 2011. The vertical distribution and abundance of total Collembola were found to be more in a natural forest ecosystem (324.69 x 102 m‐ 2) than jhum land ecosystem (222.42 x 102 m‐2) and showed a significant decrease from upper layer to deeper layers from 0 cm to 30 cm depth. In a natural forest ecosystem, the Collembola recorded higher population during rainy season (143.29 x 102 m‐2), followed by summer (108.06 x 102 m‐2) and winter season (73.34 x 102 m‐2) than jhum land ecosystem respectively. The physico‐chemical factors, except soil potassium exhibited significant correlation. The community analysis was carried out for Collembola being one of the major groups of soil microarthropods as their contributions are maximum in term of species, abundance and distribution.
Key words: Community analysis, Collembola, microarthropods, natural forest and jhum land.
3. A NOVEL IRIS SEGMENTATION SCHEME TOWARDS IRIS RECOGNITION FOR USER AUTHORIZATION
Authors- MAMATHA V, VIJAYALAKSHMI G V
Abstract- This paper proposes an effective and novel method to recognize iris for user authorization. The haar features were used to represent the iris images efficiently for recognition. The proposed work was carried out on the images acquired from the UPOL database. The accuracy of any iris recognition system depends on the segmentation. The proposed method performs segmentation using Canny Edge technique that results in reduced time consumption, thereby reducing the time required for feature extraction, feature selection, dimension reduction and classification. In this method, the boundaries were localized with high precision. The results indicate high accuracy in iris segmentation and low segmentation error rate.
Index Terms: Iris recognition, Biometrics, Haar wavelet, feature extraction, canny edge detector.
4. CHAETOMORPHA LINUM EXTRACT AS A GREEN INHIBITOR FOR CORROSION OF BRASS IN 0.1 N PHOSPHORIC ACID SOLUTION
Authors- SELVA KUMAR R. AND CHANDRASEKARAN V.
Abstract- The effect of marine algae Chaetomorpha linum extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight‐loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The inhibitive effect could be attributed to the phytochemical constituents present in the inhibitor containing N, S, O atoms. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy and entropy change) and kinetic parameters (rate constant and half‐life) for inhibition process were calculated. These thermodynamic and kinetic parameters indicate a strong interaction between the inhibitor and the brass surface. The inhibition is assumed to occur via adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the brass surface, which obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of inhibitor on the brass surface is exothermic, physical, and spontaneous, follows first order kinetics. The polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor behaves as a mixed type inhibitor and the higher inhibition surface coverage on the brass was predicted. Inhibition efficiency values were found to show good trend with weight‐loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. Surface analytical techniques (FT‐IR and SEM) were carried out to ascertain the inhibitive nature of the algal extract on the brass surface.
Index Terms: Brass, Phosphoric acid, Chaetomorpha linum, Inhibition, Polarization, and Isotherm.
5. EFFECTS OF SSI ON DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF R.C.C. BUILDING FRAME
Authors- PADMANABH S. DESAI, S. B. BORGHATE
Abstract- An analyst or a designer is mainly concerned with the analysis and design of a variety of structures. All these structures are exclusively supported by soil and hence, the subject of soil‐structure interaction has come into existence and has attracted the attention of the analysts for last four‐decades. This research intends to investigate the effect of soil‐structure interaction on the dynamic properties of three dimensional R.C.C. buildings. This objective is achieved through the analyses of multi‐story 3D frames using SAP2000v15. The results are presented for cohesionless soils with wide range of shear wave velocities and variable‐height buildings (3, 7, 10, 14, and 18 floors). The fundamental time period of the structures is found out and its correlation with shear wave velocity is graphed for various single and double pile configurations. Parametric analyses show that SSI alters the buildings performance essentially for stiffer ones (low‐raised).
INDEX TERMS: 3D frames, fundamental time period, pile spacing, SSI, seismic response
6. MULTI‐WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE (MWCNT) BASED COMPOSITE MATERIAL: A REVIEW
Authors- ABDUL RAHMAN SANAD, M.N.M.ANSARI, JAMAL O.SAMEER, ABDULBASIT ABDULLAH, BASSAM ALASEEL
Abstract- This work discusses multiple applications of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) based composite materials. Carbon materials are known to possess suitable electrical conductivity, due to its of layered structure and elevated surface area, which results in appliances that have internal electrodes for recharging, such as batteries and components for fuel cell, or devices that work with nano‐electronics such as computer chips, storage media for fuel cell for on‐board hydrogen supply, and superconductors. This study will shed light on the production, sharing, and storage of energy within these carbon materials (multi‐walled carbon tubes). Multi walled carbon nanotubes are regarded as a more useful strengthening factor compared to the shorter multi walled carbon nanotubes. The results agree with the experimental results, which confirms the validity of the model. The current research on carbon materials (multi‐walled carbon tubes) focuses on the production, distribution, and storage of energy.
Key Words: multi walled carbon nanotube; composite material properties; nano structure; matrix and fiber composite.
7. POWER GATING ARCHITECTURE FOR FPGA POWER REDUCTION
Authors- SUPRIYA M. KHALATE, PROF. VISHAL PURANIK
Abstract- In the IC manufacturing industry for high performance there is minimization of power, area and cost are main challenge. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) are economically cheaper for low quantity production because its function and interconnection can be directly reprogrammed by users. A low power FPGA based on the lookup table (LUT)level fine grain power gating with small overheads. In this paper for low power FPGA level encoded dual rail (LEDR) architecture is used for reduction of dynamic power consumption. Autonomous fine grain power gating technique is used for reduction of stand by power .There is separate sleep transistor and related sleep controller for each lookup table. In this paper discrete wavelet transform application that is used. By using sleep mode control technique in LEDR power gating goal can be achieved in that application. Power reduction goal is achieved by setting the functional unit in low leakage mode when they are inactive.
Index Terms: Dynamic Power, Level Encoding Dual Rail(LEDR), Fine grain power gating, Four –Phase Dual‐Rail
Protocol(FPDR), Logic block (LB),Lookup table(LUT), sleep controller .
8. MATRIX REDUCTION METHOD as an EFFICIENT and ALTERNATE TECHNIQUE in DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
Author- JEMAL KEMAL NIGO
Abstract- There are several methods of reducing a number of dimensional variables into a smaller number of dimensionless groups. One of the methods called the repeating variable method was proposed in 1914 by Buckingham and is now called the Buckingham Pi Theorem. Dimensional analysis by the Indicial Method is also one of a widely used method. The other is an alternate step by‐ step Method by Ipsen (1960). Even though these methods are widely used in different text books of fluid mechanics, they have some limitations. In Buckingham method all pi groups contain the same repeating variables (Redundancy) and might luck variety or effectiveness. Secondly, one must sometimes laboriously check that the selected repeating variables do not form a pi group among themselves. The indicial method exhibits similar drawbacks and is rather lengthy if a large number of variables were involved. The Ipsen alternate step‐by‐step method even though eliminates the above mentioned drawbacks, it itself have limitations. For instance, you have to examine and look for the required dimensional variable and multiply or divide by a suitable power of the variable under consideration. It is therefore necessary to develop a more generalized methodology that would had lead easily, directly, and shortly to a set of dimensionless groups and hence to the relationship among the variables. We here proposed an alternate Matrix Reduction Method (MRM) that alleviates the above mentioned problems. Indeed, we select a pivot row and column, apply some elementary row operations and J‐ operations to form the zero columns and zero row which are going to be deleted. Finally, we collect the exponents of different parameters which were obtained through successive J‐operations in the whole procedure both under the dependent variable and the proposed parameters. The result is the desired form of the relationship determining the dependence of one parameter on the others. The procedure is tested against and best illustrated by several examples.
Index Terms: Dimensional analysis, Dimensionless groups, Dimensional matrix, Matrix Reduction Method, Elementary row operation, and J‐operation
9. A METHODOLOGY OF OPTIMAL SIZING FOR WIND SOLAR HYBRID SYSTEM
Authors- AVINASH NATH TIWARI, NAVNIT DUBEY
Abstract- This paper proposes a methodology to perform the optimal sizing of a wind solar hybrid system. The methodology focus at finding the configuration, between a set of systems components to satisfy the desired system reliability requirements, with the lowest possible cost. Due to large number of design setting and the sporadique nature of solar and wind energy sources it become very challenging. In the first step modelling a wind solar hybrid system is considered in the procedure of optimal sizing methodology. While in second step optimum sizing of a system is done according to the loss of power supply probability (LPSP).
KEYWORDS: optimum system sizing; loss of power supply probability; wind; solar; hybrid system
10. BIOINDICES AND ECOLOGY OF MRIGAL CIRRHINUS MRIGALA (HAMILTON) OF PANCHASAYAR WATERBODY OF WEST BENGAL
Authors- SAMARENDRA BEHERA, BABETJANAI IANGARI, SANJEEV KUMAR, RINKU GOGOI, OLIK JOMANG, SNIGDHA BAKSI, ABDUL AZIZ
Abstract- Both male and female specimens of Cirrhinus mrigala have been assessed during a period of 7 months (March, 2007 to September, 2007) of Panchasayar waterbody of West Bengal. This season is particularly chosen because both male and female fishes attain their sexual maturity as well as ecological parameters. The hepato‐somatic index (HSI), value of male was highest in March ranging from 0.835 to 1.532. It showed a decreasing trend from March to June. While in the case of female, the HSI value ranged from 0.25 to 0.94 and maximum average value was recorded in June. The range of gastro‐somatic index (GaSI) in male varied from 1.911 to 5.095. The range of GaSI in female varied from 2.123 to 4.751. Gonado somatic index (GnSI) was ranged from 0.007‐1.179 in both the sexes. An increasing trend was observed from April to June in both male and female. The monthly variation in water temperature, pH and alkalinity were minimum of 25.150 C, 7.47 and 137.75 mg/l in June. The fluctuation in dissolved oxygen of ranged from a minimum of 7.2 mg/l to a maximum of 8.2 mg/l during sampling (September and May).
Key words: Cirrhinus mrigala, hepato‐somatic index, gonadosomatic index, gastro‐somatic index and ecological parameters.
11. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DETERMINATION OF SEX OF TRICHOGASTER FASCIATUS (BLOCH AND SCHNEIDER) DURING BREEDING AND NON BREEDING SEASON
Authors- SAMARENDRA BEHERA, ISMILE KHAN, SANJEEV KUMAR, RINKU GOGOI, OLIK JOMANG, SNIGDHA BAKSI
Abstract- In this study, we aimed to determine the External morphology such as colour of the body, belly structure and vent of Trichogaster fasciatus. It was studied to understand the modification of secondary sexual characters during breeding season in compared to non‐ breeding season. Adults of T. fasciatus ranging from the length 36 mm to 85 mm and weight of 7 gm to 15 gm (w/w) were collected in each month from the Santi jheel, Mohanpur, West Bengal during a period of one year from March, 2003 to February, 2004. Unlike higher vertebrates, the sexual or genital organs of Trichogaster fasciatus were not exposed externally. During non‐breeding season (August‐December and January‐March), males develop peacock blue colour bands, which are obliquely disposed over the laterally compressed body. In females similar bands occur but with dull steel gray colour. In non‐breeding season (August‐December and January‐March), belly of fishes were quite equal in both the sexes. This might be due to the reason that during this time, the testis and ovaries were in post‐spawning and or preparatory phase. Structure of vent is changed by appearance of genital papilla. In male, it is elongated in contrast to that of the female.
Keywords: Colour of body, belly of fishes, Structure of vent, breeding season and Trichogaster fasciatus.
12. EMBEDDED BASED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING OF FUTURE SODIUM COOLED FAST REACTOR USING LOW COST MICROCONTROLLER
Authors- J. RAHULKUMAR, Dr. D. KIRUBAKARAN
Abstract- The sodium cooled fast reactor is currently under construction at Kalpakkam, India. A Data Acquisition System is designed for core Temperature monitoring of adequate core cooling system and protects the reactor against Design basis events. Here the triplicated real‐time computer system and hardwired system is used for monitoring subassembly outlet sodium temperature and reactor inlet temperature. This paper describes the microcontroller based data Acquisition system for core temperature monitoring of sodium cooled fast reactor.
Key words: Electronics, Temperature monitoring, Data logging, Embedded control, Buzzer Indicating Alarm
13. FISHING TRAILS WITH MODIFIED TWO–SEAM OVERHANG TRAWL- INTRA-SPECIFIC SELECTIVITY STUDIES
Authors- N.A.TALWAR, B.HANUMANTHAPPA, M.T.LAXMIPATHI
Abstract- A two–seam overhang trawl is modified by incorporating the square mesh panels of 45mm mesh size in forward part of upper belly and 28mm mesh size in codend and fishing trails were carried out during day time, off Karwar coast to study the intra-specific selectivity of some important finfishes and shellfishes. The fishing ground was chosen at random, based on the operation of the other commercial trawlers in the vicinity. The retention lengths (L50%,) of some important different finfishes such as Mackerels, Pomfrets, Soles and Ribbon fishes (Trichiurus spp.), clupeids (Sardinella spp.) and Silver bellies (Leiognathus spp.) and some shell fishes such as Metapenaens sp.and Parapenopsis sp. were estimated and compared those with their size at sexual maturity for intra-specific selectivity .
Key words: Two–seam over hang trawl; Square mesh; Finfishes, shellfishes 50% of retention length (i.e.L50%).and sexual maturity
14. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A L AND U‐SHAPED SLOT COMPACT PLANAR MONOPOLE ANTENNA
Authors- A. GNANDEEP REDDY, K. GOPIVASANTH KUMAR, T. KARTHEEK, G. KRISHNA TEJA, G. LAKSHMAN CHANDRA
Abstract- This paper presents the design of a new compact antenna structure for multiple incorporating operation service. The proposed antenna is suitable to operate at three different frequency bands, 3.9839 GHz (3.9165 GHz – 4.0340 GHz), 4.4271 GHz (4.3830 GHz –4.4800 GHz), and 9.8442 GHz (7.0435‐11.6715) with a return loss less than ‐10dB. The antenna structure includes a CPW fed line, the technique used to enlarge the frequency bands is the slots technique i.e. L and U‐Slots and in the same time we have developed a new antenna structure which operates in various wireless communication applications. The antenna parameters have been investigated and optimized by using HFSS tool. Simulated results show that the proposed antenna with compact size of 15X15X1.6 mm has good radiation characteristics and operating in specific microwave applications.
Keywords: L‐Slot, U‐Slot, Monopole antenna, Compact, HFSS
15. IMPLEMENTATION OF STATCOM ON DFIG BASED WIND FORM
Authors- MAHESH CHANAGOND, PLASIN DIAS
Abstract- The Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind farm into the power grid has become a major concern for power system engineers today. Voltage stability & Regulated is a key factor to maintain DFIG‐based wind farm in service during the grid fault. I study the implementation of STATCOM to overcome the voltage stability ®ulation issue for DFIG based wind farm connected to a distribution network. The study includes the implementation of a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) as a dynamic reactive power compensator at the point of common coupling to maintain stable voltage by protecting DFIG‐based wind farm interconnected to a distribution system from going off line during and after the disturbances. The developed system is simulated in MATLAB the results show that the STATCOM improves the transient voltage stability and therefore helps the wind turbine generator system to remain in service during grid faults.
16. POTENT FIRE PREVENTION AND ALERT SYSTEM WITH FLAMMABLE FUMES AND GAS SENSOR CIRCUITRY INTEGRATED WITH MULTIPLE CONNECTIVITY SYSTEMS (WIRELESS MESH NETWORK, GSM AND ETHERNET SYSTEM) FOR REMOTE ACCESS AND MONITORING
Authors- VIPIN GUPTA, AKSHAY JAIN
Abstract- This project is aimed to develop an automated system in industries that sounds a local alarm and sends information through several mediums including logging the complaint on an online server at remote location that can be accessed anywhere through devices which are connected to the internet to overcome the issues faced in the past so that the accidents which can be caused by the leakages of the gas can be lessened. The accidents in the industries due to these leakages lead to threatening diseases as in past happened at the Union Carbide plant, Bhopal. So, these lead me to believe that preventive automated measures should be put in place along with human measures, as cost of human error or machine failure are very high to fathom. So to operationalize this idea, I used several gas sensor circuitries which shall be installed at all the zones present at oil sector industries, these shall sense the gas concentration values at those zones and accordingly perform functions given in form of instructions to the system. Everything shall be automated such that there is no chance of carelessness leading to severe damage. Also at various zones we shall install sprinkler systems containing CO2 and/or water at the top and adjacent places, such that if case of any leakage, the sprinklers shall sprinkle CO2 / Cold Water so as to lower the temperature of the zone to decrease the chances of fire at that location or decrease intensity of fire, in case it happens. We have thereby reduced the human involvement in the system but human intervention has not been done away with. This system hopes to complement efforts of man with that of machine and vice versa.
KEYWORDS‐AVR, Gas sensors, automation in industries, Ethernet Shield, Embedded Web Server.
17. CIRCUIT DESIGNING USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC
Authors- SARABJEET SINGH, VIPIN GUPTA
Abstract- In the recent years, reversible logic has emerged as a promising technology having its applications in low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology and optical computing. Reversible logic circuits provide less power dissipation as well as distinct output assignment for each distinct input. The classical set of gates such as the NAND, AND, NOR, OR, XOR and XNOR are not reversible. This paper aims at finding a reversible counterpart of all the irreversible basic logic gates and developing full custom layout of all these gates. Attempts have been taken to minimize the circuit of all the logic gates using CMOS while making them reversible. Further the reversible logic has been utilized to design the reversible full adder and half adder. Using those gates, 4‐bit Binary Parallel Adder and 4 bit adder‐sub tractor circuit are also designed. Thus, this paper provides the initial threshold to building of more complex system which can execute more complicated operations using reversible logic.
Keywords: Reversible Gate, CMOS implementation, basic gates, Arithmetic circuits, timing analysis.
18. K‐N SECRETE SHARING SCHEME OF VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY USING 2 X 2 BLOCKS REPLACEMENT
Authors- VINITA SHARMA, VIPIN GUPTA
Abstract- Visual cryptography is a method offering plan which uses pictures circulated as shares such that, when the shares are stack, a sensitive or secrete image is uncovered. According to extended visual cryptography, the offer pictures are built to hold compelling spread pictures, accordingly giving open doors to coordinating visual cryptography and biometric security methods. In this paper, we propose a scheme for halftone pictures that enhances the nature of the shares generated from secrete image and the recouped secrete picture in an extended visual cryptography plan for which the figure size of the secret pictures and the reconstructed picture by stacking shares is the similar with respect to the first halftone secrete picture. The ensuing plan upholds the ideal security of the first developed visual cryptography approach. This process includes 2×2 block replacement for generating shares from secrete image.
Index Terms— cryptography, image processing, visual cryptography, secret sharing
19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL SCOUR AROUND CIRCULAR COMPOUND BRIDGE PIER
Authors- PROF. P.T. NIMBALKAR, S.S. THORAT
Abstract- Local scour around the circular bridge pier in alluvial channel is main factor for failure of hydraulics structures such as bridge pier, abutment etc. It is a complex phenomenon. Local scour around bridge pier is depends upon the depth of flow, Discharge, Geometry of Pier, Types of sediment particles. Many researchers have studies on scour around uniform cross section of pier without considering the effect of footing of bridge pier. But the study on scour under steady condition for compound bridge piers is limited. In present study, the experimental work was carried out on different geometry of compound bridge pier under clear water scour condition with uniform and non uniform sediments. The compound bridge pier was placed at a various location with respect to initial bed level. i.e. the top level of foundation at bed level, top level of foundation below bed level and top level of foundation above bed level. It is observed that the maximum scour occurs when the foundation top above initial bed level and it is reduce at bed level and below bed level. It is also observed that there is reduction scour in non uniform sediment as compare uniform sediment.
KEYWORDs: ‐ Bridge pier, Sediment, Scour, Compound pier, Foundation etc.
20. ENHANCEMENT OF PSS AND REDUCTION IN POWER LOSSES USING TCSC AND SVC FOR THREE AREA INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEM
Authors- S. RAMESH, M. SUNEETHA
Abstract- The aim of the paper is to enhance the power system stability and to reduce the power losses in three area interconnected power system  using TCSC and SVC. In present power system, controllability of power losses is a major issue, and also enhancement of system stability is an important task to improve power system .For that purpose we are analyzing 47 bus system i.e. interconnection of three areas, such as 9 bus , 14 bus and 24 bus. The comparison between general 47 bus system is detailed and proposed new HVDC system for interconnection in 47 bus system using FACTS device is also detailed. The best location of the FACTS device is recognized by Power Flow Analysis .The analysis is carried out using power system Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) software.In this paper we are going to find the best location of installing facts devices in 47 bus system. We are analyzing the system behavior and minimization of real power losses in the 47‐bus system and advance technology of facts device enhances stability. we are using TCSC and SVC within the system and identify the best location where the real power losses are reduced compared with 47‐bus system without facts devices, and we are placing HVDC links to interconnect the three areas such as 9‐bus, 14‐bus & 24‐bus to form 47‐bus system .While comparing individual TCSC device, SVC device, HVDC link and every possible combination (TCSC, SVC & HVDC), the real power losses are minimized (less) in combination when compare to individual cases. Combination of both devices gives better performance for 47 bus system. The simulation has been carried out in PSAT  interfaced with MATLAB package.
Index Terms: Interconnections, HVDC, TCSC, SVC and Eigen values etc.
21. MITIGATION OF POWER QUALITY DISTURBANCES USING DISTRIBUTION POWER FLOW CONTROLLER
Authors- I. ADITYA KIRAN, G. SRINIVASULU REDDY
Abstract- In modern power systems the power quality became one of the main concern. Monitor and analysis of power system is very important to guarantee power quality. Most serious threats for electrical power systems are voltage sag and swell. The disturbance will occur due to some events like short circuit in the grid, inrush current involved with large machines. Many technique are existing to overcome the quality problems. In enhancing the operation of power system in static conditions as well as in dynamic conditions, Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are became most popular which are used by utilities and due to their capability of controlling the system. Since from decades of years FACTS technology used to improve the power system stability. By using a new D‐FACTS technique power quality is enriched in spite of UPFC Distributed Power‐Flow Controller (DPFC) device is used and have the same control capability as UPFC. The case study contains a DPFC sited in a single‐machine infinite bus power system including two parallel transmission lines.In the event of voltage sag the load may malfunctioning or trip due to insufficient energy.In proposed work voltage sag and swell of the power quality issues and also content of harmonic and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of voltage and current wave in distribution network are studied to mitigate the voltage deviation and improve power quality. In this process the proposed work with fuzzy controller shows superior performance in both single machine system and multi machine system. The performance of the system are simulated by using MATLAB / SIMULINK Package.
Index Terms:DPFC, Voltage sag, PST, SMIB and Power Quality.
22. OPTIMAL LOCATION OF HVDC LINK & UPFC FOR MULTI MACHINE POWER SYSTEM TO IMPROVE POWER SYSTEM STABILITY
Authors- K. ASHOK KUMAR, G. SRINIVASULU REDDY
Abstract- This paper focuses on three key issues of the power system that is minimization of real power losses, improving voltage profile of the buses and enhancing system stability by placing the hvdc link and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)and to the best location in WSCC 3 machine 9 bus system. The comparison between the hvdc link and UPFC is carried out to prove that UPFC is more efficient FACTS device. In this paper the best location of the FACTS devices is recognized by Power Flow Analysis. Eigen Value Analysis is employed to show the performance of hvdc link for stability enhancement. The analysis is carried out using Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) software.
Index Terms: PSAT ([Power System Analysis Toolbox), HVDC Link , UPFC , Losses , Eigen value approach , Stability
23. LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL OF HYDRO ‐ THERMAL AND NUCLEAR INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEM USING FUZZY AND ANN CONTROLLERS
Authors- K. SUDHEER KUMAR, A. PRASAD
Abstract- This paper present analysis on dynamic performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of four area interconnected hydrothermal and nuclear interconnected power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent, Fuzzy and PI Controller. In the proposed scheme, control methodology developed using conventional PI controller, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC) for four area interconnected hydro‐thermal and nuclear power system. In this paper area‐1 and area‐2 consists of thermal reheat power plant and area‐3 consists of hydro power plant whereas area‐4 consists of nuclear power plant. In this proposed scheme, the combination of most complicated system like hydro plant and thermal plant with reheat turbine and nuclear plant are interconnected which increases the nonlinearity of the system. The generator inertia and load values have been different for thermal–reheat plants, same inertia and load value for hydro and nuclear plant. The performance of the controllers is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. A comparison of PI controller, Fuzzy controller and ANN controller based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANN based approach over Fuzzy and PI for same conditions. To improve the performance of PI, Fuzzy and neural controller sliding surface is incorporated. The simulation results also tabulated as a comparative performance in view of settling time and peak over shoot.
Index Terms: Load Frequency Control (LFC), Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Controller, Proportional Integral (PI) controller, Area Control Error (ACE), Tie‐line power, MATLAB / SIMULINK.
24. IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS OF TQM IN INDIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
Author- PANKAJ KUMAR PRAJAPATI
Abstract- Total Quality Management (TQM) is a managerial approach that shows QUALITY to be a result of all organizational activities like manufacturing, marketing and engineering, administration work. TQM aims at improving and maintaining quality standards and to achieve customer satisfaction. TQM is a technique mainly adopted by large organizations. Whereas Small and Medium Enterprise (SME’s) businesses are still lagging behind, when it comes to introducing and adopting new managerial philosophy and advanced technology. This paper is about to implement TQM in SME’s and critical successful factors through AHP technique.
Key words: Total Quality Management (TQM), Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s), Critical Successful Factors (CSF’s), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Barriers, Interpretive Structural modeling (ISM).
25. METAMATERIAL BASED MICROSTRIP LINE FEED PLUS SHAPE PATCH ANTENNA FOR GPS, WI-FI AND WIMAX APPLICATION
Authors- D. PATIR, DIPAK KR. NEOG
Abstract- A microstrip line feed plus shape patch antenna using metamaterial for GPS, Wi-Fi and WIMAX application is reported in this paper. The resonant frequency of the antenna shifted to lower frequency and bandwidth increased with the use of matematerial. The dimension of this patch antenna is 38×25×1.59 mm3. The designed antenna is simulated with HFSS-13 and fabricated on FR4 substrate with εr=4.4. The simulated results and experimental results are in good agreement.
Index Terms: Microstrip Patch Antenna, HFSS, Metamaterial, GPS, Wi-Fi, WIMAX.
26. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF VERIFICATION ENVIRONMENT TO VERIFY SPI MASTER CORE USING UVM
Authors- RAJESH C, SHIVANANDA, MRS. SHANTHI V A
Abstract- The main objective of the work is to design an SPI Master Core using Verilog HDL and Verify the designed SPI Master Core using Universal Verification Methodology. SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) facilitates the transfer of synchronous serial data, which is now a day’s engineer’s favorite choice for its convenience and saving system resource. SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) operates in full duplex mode. It communicates in master/slave mode where the master device initiates the data frame. Multiple slave devices are allowed with individual slave select line .Serial Peripheral Interface of symmetrical structure can be designed using Verilog HDL and Synthesized using Xilinx 13.2, and then can be simulated using Questasim 10.0b. SPI is a very popular interface used for connecting peripherals to each other and to microprocessors.
Key Words: SPI, WISHBONE, QUESTASIM, XILINX ISE, Verilog, UVM, Coverage
27. IMPROVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY AND STABILITY IN WIND FARM TO WEAKGRID CONNECTION USING UPQC
Authors- A.VENKATA BHAVYA, G.SRINIVASULU REDDY
Abstract- Most of the wind energy conversion systems around the world employ Squirrel Cage Induction Generator (SCIG) which is directly connected to the grid. In modern power generation, the Wind Farms (WF) are connected through Medium Voltage (MV) distribution headlines. A situation commonly found in such scheme is that the power generated is comparable to the transport capacity of the grid. This case is known as Wind Farm to Weak Grid Connection. The major problems due to weak grids are voltage fluctuations and this causes poor voltage regulation at the Point Of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus the combination of weak grids, wind power fluctuation and system load changes results in disturbances in the PCC voltage, it will have negative impact on Power Quality and WF stability. This situation can be improved using control methods at generator level, or compensation techniques at PCC. In case of wind farms based on SCIG directly connected to the grid, it is necessary to employ the Custom Power System (CUPS). This project proposes the CUPS device i.e., Unified Power Quality Compensator (UPQC) which is designed to mitigate voltage fluctuations at the grid side and to maintain the voltage in the WF terminals. The internal control strategy is based on the management of active and reactive power in the series and shunt converters of the UPQC, and the exchange of power between converters through UPQC DC–Link. This approach increases the compensation capability of the UPQC with respect to other custom strategies i.e., DVR and DSTATCOM that use reactive power only. Simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed compensation strategy for the enhancement of Power Quality and Wind Farm stability.
Index Terms: Wind Energy, Problems in Weak Grid, UPQC, Operation, Control Strategies, etc.
28. DENIAL OF SERVICES ATTACK AND ITS PREVENTION USING EXTRA SECURITY FEATURE REQUEST NUMBER
Authors- SURBHI MAHESHWARI, NEERAJ MANGLANI
Abstract- In this paper a new technique is stated which is implement the denial of services attack and also implement the way via which we will overcome this attack. Denial‐of‐service (DoS) attacks exploit this to target critical Web services. This type of attack is intended to make a computer resource unavailable to its legitimate user’s. Denial of service attack programs is been going on from a long time. Old single source attacks are now countered easily by many defense mechanisms and the source of these attacks can be easily re buffed or shut down with improved tracking capabilities.
29. A HIGH PERFORMANCE NETWORK‐ON‐CHIP SYSTEM WITH PATH‐CONGESTION-AWARE ADAPTIVE ROUTING
Authors- ANAND H D, VARALAKSHMI K R, ARUN KUMAR G C
Abstract- Network on chip is an emerging concept for communication within large VLSI systems implemented on a single silicon chip. Routing is an important parameter. The routing algorithm should be implemented by simple logic and number of data buffers should be minimal. So selection of routing algorithm is critical. I am going to propose an adaptive routing technique that increases the effectiveness of routing path selection based on channel based information and switch based information simultaneously. Existing adaptive schemes uses only channel based information for traffic monitoring and routing path selection, but channel based information alone is not sufficient to predict path congestion accurately. So, I am going to remodel the path congestion information to show covert spatial congestion information considering all the latencies such as router latency, buffer latency, packet latency etc. by employing path congestion aware adaptive routing strategy and contention prediction scheme for path congestion prediction. Finally, the efficiency, power and area consumption and cost requirements are compared with respect to other similar popular implementation to get optimized results.
Index Terms: Adaptive Routing, Congestion Prediction, Network on Chip (NoC).
30. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT LEAKAGE POWER CHARACTERISTICS OF DYNAMIC CIRCUITS IN SUB‐90 NM CMOS TECHNOLOGIES
Author- SHIVANI SHUKLA
Abstract- The temperature dependent subthreshold and gate oxide leakage power characteristics of domino logic circuits are evaluated in this paper. The preferred input vectors and node voltage states minimize the total leakage power consumption and are identified at the lower and upper extremes of a typical die temperature spectrum. Previous studies indicate that a discharged dynamic node voltage states with high inputs is preferable to reduce the subthreshold leakage power consumption in an idle dual threshold voltage domino gate .The significantly increased gate dielectric tunneling current, as described in this paper, dramatically changes the leakage power characteristics of dynamic circuits in the sub‐90nm CMOS technologies. Furthermore, the leakage power savings provided by the dual threshold voltage domino logic circuit techniques are all together reduced due to the significance of the gate dielectric tunneling in the nanometer CMOS technologies.
Index Terms- Domino Logic, Dynamic Circuit.
31. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GDI BASED 1‐BIT FULL ADDER CIRCUIT FOR LOW POWER & HIGH SPEED APPLICATIONS
Author- SHWETA KUMARI
Abstract- In modern VLSI circuit’s logical operation play an important role . Full adder circuit play a vital role in different applications such as Digital signal processor, microcontroller, microprocessor, Application specific ICs( ASIC) and data processing units. Due to scaling trends and portability of electronic devices there is a high demand and need for low power and high speed digital circuits with small silicon area. So, design and analysis of low power and high performance adders are of great interest and any modification made to the full adder circuit would affect the performance of the entire system. Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) is one of the advanced technique in the field of low power digital IC design. This technique is used to reduce power consumption, delay and number of transistors count as compared to convectional CMOS design. This paper presents a detail performance analysis of GDI Based 1‐bit Full Adder Circuit for Low Power Applications. Behaviour of the circuit based on average power and delay in nanometer regime has been analyzed and presented, so that it can be used for low power applications. All simulations results are based on BPTM model & have been carried out by Tanner EDA tool on 180nm, 90nm, 65nm and 45nm technology.
Keywords: GDI (Gate Diffusion Input), Low Power Design, Full adder, High speed
32. ENHANCE THE TRANSIENT STABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER BY USING DFIG AND HPS SYSYTEM
Authors- A MOUNIKA, Dr. I. PRABHAKAR REDDY
Abstract- Over the past 20 years the concern over renewable energy resources is increasing due to limited conventional resources and increased pollution. In India, 16.8 % of power is contributed by wind energy and with the technological advances there is a good scope of increasing the power contributed by wind energy. However, the wind generators when integrated to the grid have adverse effects which lead to the reduction in power quality. Many researchers have proposed different techniques to maintain the voltage quality at the PCC by controlling the reactive power. Instead of controlling the reactive power, an energy storage system can be used to control the voltage .A control strategy for managing the demand – generation fluctuations using a hybrid energy storage system in a wind‐dominated remote area power supply system consisting of a DFIG, a battery storage system, a super capacitor, a dump load and main loads. Operation of battery storage system is coordinated with a super capacitor with a view to improving the performance of the battery. In this regard, the battery storage system is connected to the load side of the RAPS system, whereas the super capacitor is connected to the dc bus of the back-to-back converter of the DFIG. The project emphasizes on the application of hybrid energy storage systems to mitigate the effect of wind speed fluctuations, thereby ensuring smooth power output as well as improving the power quality at the PCC.
Index Terms: Transient Stability, DFIG, RAPS system, and Wind power etc.
33. ADDRESS SPOFFING IN IPV6
Authors- HARDIKA GUPTA, NEERAJ MANGLANI
Abstract- In this paper, we have discussed that in today’s Internet routing architecture, the router doesn’t validate the correctness of the source address carried in the packet, nor keep the state information when forwarding the packet. Thus the DDoS attacks with spoofed IP source address can cause security problems. In this paper, we aim to prevent the attackers from attacking somewhere outside the IPv6 edge network with forged source address in the fine granularity. The proposed methods include source address authentication by using session key and hash digest algorithm, and replay attack prevention by combining the sequence number method and the timestamp method. This paper presents the algorithm design and evaluates its feasibility and correctness by simulation experiments.
Keywords: Source Address Spoofing, IPv6, Edge.
34. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF COMBINATIONAL CODING CIRCUITS USING ADIABATIC LOGIC
Author- ARCHITA SRIVASTAVA
Abstract- Energy recovery logic or adiabatic logic is emerging as a new logic design style for implementation in modern technology with minimal impact on circuit heat generation. Adiabatic logic is a design methodology for reversible logic in CMOS where the current flow through the circuit is controlled such that the energy dissipation due to switching and capacitor dissipation is minimized. Recent advancements in reversible logic using and quantum computer algorithms allow for improved computer architectures. Production of cost effective secure Integrated Chips, such as Smart Cards, requires hardware designers to consider tradeoffs in size, security, and power consumption. This paper presents a CMOS-based new design approach for a low power adiabatic 4:2 Priority Encoder and a 2:4 Decoder. The proposed designs are compared with the standard adiabatic logic styles– PFAL, ECRL and 2n2n2p, revealing lesser power consumption. The simulation is carried out in Tanner EDA software for frequency range 200MHz – 800MHz.
Keywords-Adiabatic logic, priority encoder, decoder, PFAL, ECRL, 2n2n2p, power dissipation.
35. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIALLY ROUGHENED SURFACE FOR IMPROVED HEATING IN SOLAR AIR HEATER
Authors- YOGENDRA KUMAR NIGAM, MAHESH K. DARGAR, PRAVIN K. SINGH, DR. V.N. BARTARIA
Abstract- The solar air heaters are used for heating of air by the absorbed solar radiations. The heat transfer from the collector surface to the air increases in case of a roughened surface. The collector surface can be provided with artificial roughness. It is found in the literature that several types of roughness are suitable for use in solar air heater for improving heat transfer rate. The present work comprises Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of artificially roughened surface with triangular and square shaped ribs alternatively placed over the absorber surface. The heat transfer rate for this arrangement is evaluated for the solar air heater with assumed solar radiations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used in the analysis of the flow problems and the same tool has been used in this research work for the development of methodology for analysis of the artificially roughened surface with two different shape ribs alternatively arranged. The objective of this paper is to evaluate numerically the performance of a solar air heater having artificial roughness.
Index Terms: Artificial roughness, Roughness geometry, Solar air heater, Reynolds number, k‐ε turbulence model.
36. THE EFFECT OF HOT FORGING AND HEAT TREATMENT ON TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF AL ALLOY & NANO COMPOSITES‐A REVIEW PAPER
Authors- MUKESH SAHU, MAHESH KUMAR DARGAR, DR. V.N. BARTARIA
Abstract- The use of aluminium‐based particulate reinforced MMCs for automotive components and aircraft structures have been shown to be highly advantageous over their unreinforced alloys, due to their high specific strength and stiffness and superior wear resistance in a wide temperature range. The forging process led to an evident grain refinement, while it did not lead to significant variations in the size and distribution of the reinforcement particles. This paper shows a study of the effect of hot forging and heat treatment on tribological properties of Al alloy‐nano composites. In this study the importance of tailoring material properties in Aluminium alloy composites is discussed and shown the available information of Aluminium and its alloys, composite materials, processing of composite through different manufacturing processes, forging process, mechanical properties, wear behaviour of Al‐Si‐Mg alloys & their composites.
Index Terms: Al alloy, Heat Treatment, Hot forging, Nano composites, Tribological Properties
37. MODELING, INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF MICRO‐WEDM PROCESS ON AEROSPACE MATERIAL
Authors- KESHAV PRASAD PATEL, MAHESH KUMAR DARGAR, PRAVIN KUMAR SINGH
Abstract- During the last decade there has been continuing demand of compact, integrated and small size products by a non‐traditional process for accurate and cost‐effective measurement of material properties. Micro‐manufacturing processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of concern include minimum feature size, tolerance, surface finish, and material removal rate (MRR) and applications of advanced, which is very difficult‐to machine materials. Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) technology has been widely used in production, aerospace/aircraft, medical and virtually all areas of conductive material machining. Aerospace materials are known as unique materials ever produced in manufacturing industries. It’s capable to withstand in very high temperature and the excellent resistance in mechanical and chemical debilitate. The aerospace material is nickel based super alloys is having high strength, thermal conflict with very tough material characteristics. It is also very good in corrosion resistance in many conditions of engineering applications. Due to very tough in nature and the machinability has been studied by many researchers on these materials and been carried out for last few years. This project presents the machining of the aerospace material (Al) using wire EDM with in micro size. The objective of this project is to investigate the performance of micro wire EDM machining of Al material. WEDM is extensively used in machining of conductive materials when accuracy and tight tolerance is important. Simple and easily understandable model for an axisymmetric 2D model for wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) has been developed using the finite element method (FEM). Correctness of the present FEA modeling method has been checked by comparing the present thermal modeling with the previously developed thermal model of INCONEL718 material. The observation have been influenced on various characteristics namely, material removal rate (MRR) and residual stress. Comparison was done between the theoretical MRR and the experimental results. Design was based on L9 orthogonal array that was taken by Taguchi design of experiment (DOE) approach with three‐level, three factors Experiments have been conducted for each experimental run.
Index Terms: Aluminum, Micro WEDM, ANSYS, Modeling, MRR, Residual stress, optimization, WPCA, TOPSIS, Grey relational analysis.
38. THE EFFECT OF HOT FORGING AND HEAT TREATMENT ON TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF AL6061‐AL2O3 NANO COMPOSITES
Authors- MUKESH SAHU, MAHESH KUMAR DARGAR, DR. V.N. BARTARIA
Abstract- The use of aluminium‐based particulate reinforced MMCs for automotive components and aircraft structures have been shown to be highly advantageous over their unreinforced alloys, due to their high specific strength and stiffness and superior wear resistance in a wide temperature range. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the hot forging process on the microstructure and tribological properties of a MMC based on the aluminium alloys A6061 reinforced with nanoalumina particles (Al2O3p). Al6061 matrix composite reinforced with nano Al2O3 particles were fabricated by liquid metallurgy route. Percentage of nano Al2O3 particles in Al6061 matrix alloy was varied from 1‐3wt. % in steps of 1wt%. Cast Al6061 alloy and Al6061‐nano Al2O3 composites were hot forged at a temperature of 500oC. After forging, both Al6061 alloy and Al6061‐Al2O3 composites were subjected to heat treatment by solutionizing at a temperature of 530 ̊C for 2 hours followed by quenching in water media. Artificial ageing was done at different durations like 2, 4, 6 and 8 hrs after quenching. Hot forged and heat treated Al6061 alloy and Al6061‐nano Al2O3 composites were subjected to microstructural studies, microhardness test, friction and wear studies. Microstructural analyses of the as‐cast and heat‐treated composites showed large grain size of the aluminium alloy matrix and a quite non‐homogeneous distribution of the reinforcing particles. The forging process led to an evident grain refinement, while it did not lead to significant variations in the size and distribution of the reinforcement particles. It is observed that the microhardness of hot forged Al6061‐nano Al2O3 composites increases with increase in weight percent of nano Al2O3 in the matrix alloy. On heat treatment, for a given content of nano Al2O3 after quenching in water, results in maximum hardness of the composites. Co‐efficient of friction of hot forged composites reduces with increase in content of nano Al2O3 in both as forged and heat treatment conditions. An increase in load leads to drastic reduction in co‐efficient of friction for both heat treated and un‐heat treated hot forged Nano composites. It is also observed that co‐efficient of friction of both matrix alloy and its composites decreases with increase in ageing duration.
Index Terms: Al alloy, Heat Treatment, Hot forging, Nano composites, Tribological Properties.
39. WIRELESS SECURITY USING IMAGE ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION
Authors- MONA BAI, NEERAJ MANGLANI
Abstract- In this paper a new technique is stated which is implement the security concept in the wireless networks. In the wireless networks on of the foremost problem is the authentication of the authorized user , which we have done by taking the image as a password and also the image is encrypted further to enhance the security WSNs consist of multifunction and spatially distributed sensor nodes that are small in size. The sensor nodes integrate different properties for sensing the environment, as well as data processing and communication among other sensors. WSN monitors physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, humidity, motion or pollution. WSNs perform an important role in many applications, such as battlefields surveillance, patient health monitoring, home automation, traffic control, environmental observation and building intrusion surveillance.
KEYWORDS: Encryption, Decryption, Image encryption.
40. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFER DURING OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF BITTER GOURD SLICES IN BINARY SOLUTION
Authors- VIRENDRA PARMAR, ADITYA LAL, R. N. SHUKLA
Abstract- The present work aimed to study mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of bitter gourd slices in binary solution. The experiments were conducted at the combinations of three binary solution (Salt) concentration levels (5, 10 and 15% w/w) and three solutions temperature (40, 50, 60⁰C). At each combination, the observations on moisture loss and solid gain were determined at six time intervals (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180min). Sample to Solution ratio was kept constant 1:5 w/v through all experiments. The mass transfer in osmotic dehydration of bitter gourd slices were explained by a two‐parameter mathematical model Azuara et al. Moreover, the effect of solution concentration and temperature was also studied and it was found that initial water loss and solid gain are related to solution concentration and temperature whereas equilibrium contents are related to salt concentration. From the experimental data it is possible to estimate the equilibrium content of water and solid.
Keywords: Osmotic Dehydration, Moisture Loss, Solid Gain.
41. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF ORANGE PEEL POWDER FORTIFIED BISCUITS
Authors- MAYUR N BUGAD, R.N. SHUKLA, A.A. MISHRA
Abstract- The Orange peel powder fortified biscuits. The waste utilization of Orange peel was the most important aspect of this study. Studies were conducted on incorporation of Orange peel powder (Citrus × sinensis) fortified biscuit. These used Orange peel powder 0, 5, 7.5, 10,12.5 and 15 % level to prepare Orange peel powder and Maida were analyzed for physical analysis weight, diameter, thickness, spared ratio, (6.85,6.004, 0.71, 8.78) respectively. Chemical analysis protein, fat, moisture, ash, fibre (6.25, 17.59, 3.5, 2.65, 1.89 g/100g) & ( Vit. C 0.53mg/100g) respectively on the basis of overall sensory attributes, colour of sample 100:10% has better appearance as compare to 100:7.5% and 100:15%. Flavor, Aroma, Taste, After Taste and Overall Acceptability of sample 100:7.5% has got higher score than sample 100:05% and 100:15% because of dark yellow color of orange peel powder fortified biscuits. After chemical analysis it was found that sample 100:7.5% had high percentage of protein and other nutrients it was concluded that Orange peel powder and Maida can be substituted up to 5 to 10% in wheat flour to prepare orange peel powder without adversely affecting quality attributes.
Keywords: Fortification, Orange peel powder, Quality evaluation, Waste utilization
42. HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH‐PRESSURE GAS IN AN AUGMENTED HEAT EXCHANGER USED IN COAL MINES: A REVIEW
Authors- SAGAR S. GADDAMWAR, A. N. PAWAR
Abstract- In Indian Coal mines, underground mines, mineral ore mines syngases at high pressure and high temperature are found in large quantities. This syngas is highly toxic, harmful and flammable gas which will be present in atmosphere which may cause many accidents. Hence it is necessary to reduce the content of syngas from mines in the atmosphere. This paper describes literature review of Convective heat transfer characteristics of high pressure gas used in mines. Heat transfer in convection cooling section of pressurized coal gasifier with the membrane helical coils and membrane serpentine tubes under high pressure is studied. This review covers the status and perspectives of syngas used in heat exchanger. It also covers the work carried out by different research scholar in this promising area. Some suggestions in the form of new concept are also suggested to reduce the percentage of high pressure syngas in the atmosphere. This paper will be useful for those who are working in the field of coal mine, underground mines and mineral ore mines.
Keywords: High pressure gas, Membrane Helical Coil, Membrane serpentine tube, Convective heat transfer.
43. ESTIMATION OF DOMESTIC, CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER, SURFACE WATER RESOURCES OF RENIA CITY ‐ IRAQ
Authors- AHMED TALIB ABDULJALEEL AL‐ALIKHAN, PROF. P.T.NIMBALKAR
Abstract- The area understudy is located in the northeastern of Iraq between lat. (36° 10‐ 42, 46° 31‐ 00) and long. (47° 21‐ 00, 4460‐ 41) approx. Area of 980 .The study area is chosen for the hydro‐‐geological study it has high groundwater resources useful for irrigation of medium and large scale projects. The main sources in the studied area are wells, springs and streams. It is reported that drinkable water in Renia district is existing for 91 % of the population Renia city has an urban population about 65,110. Over the planning period through 2025, its population is projected to increase to approximately 117,540.The water demand for the year 2005 is approximately 28,100 , and it is projected to increase around 50800 by the year 2025. The combined water demand for these sub district Renia city (Batwata, Hejiawa and Chwerqurna) is projected to increase from approximately (34,470 ) to around (62,250 ), by the year 2025.Well tests for (11) wells that penetrate the Quaternary aquifer indicated specific yield with median value of 0.08m/day, a hydraulic conductivity with median value of 2.10 and transmissivity with median value of 170 .
44. STUDY ON EFFECT OF FIBER ORIENTATION DISTRIBUTIONS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF SHORT‐GLASS‐FIBER‐REINFORCED POLYAMIDE‐6 STRUCTURE
Authors- MARTIN ANTO, NAVIN KARANTH P, SENTHIL SUBRAMANIAM
Abstract- Thermoplastics have many advantages over metal parts, including lower mass and ease of fabrication. To further improve their elastic modulus, creep resistance, and dimensional stability, short fibers are added to polymers. However, the application of fiber‐filled thermoplastic materials has been limited in many cases by the inability to accurately predict performance and durability. Evaluation of structural strength using FEA technique with normal isotropic properties, cannot effectively characterize the failure region in composite structures. Presented work is focusing on numerical simulation of short glass fibers reinforced thermoplastic composites manufactured with injection molding technology. A combination of software packages for injection molding analysis, material modeling (Digimat) and structural analyses helps to determine exact failure region and quantification of correct deflection of members by incorporating information on fibers distribution. Detailed methodology adopted using Digimat for the correct structural reliability is discussed in this paper.
Index Terms: Thermoplastics, PA6GF30, Short Glass Fiber (SGF), Digimat
45. MEASUREMENT OF TRANSMISSIVITY AND CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUIFER BY PUMPING TESTS OF SINJAR, IRAQ
Authors- AHMED ABD ALRAZZAK BURAA, RAVINDRA A OAK
Abstract- This paper Showed many estimation of transmissivity (T) and conductivity (K) by analysis pumping test data for four wells in Sinjar area is located in the north western part of Iraq , the analysis method based on Theis (1935) method and Cooper‐Jacob Straight‐Line Time‐Drawdown Method , AquiferWin32 software serve the writer to calculate the Transmissivity values and display of aquifer properties , Find out the hydraulic conductivity by using Saturated thickness and transmissivity data of the aquifer , Measured transmissivity values vary from 1.034 m²/day to around 5.911 m²/day , The hydraulic conductivity was range between 0.021 to 0.049 m/day, these graph are presented and discussed.
46. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH BUSBAR SYSTEM
Authors- PRAVEEN PODDAR, Dr. K.S. SHASHISHEKAR
Abstract- A busbar is a strip or bar of copper, aluminum or any that conducts electricity within a switch board, distribution board, substation, battery bank or other electrical system. Its main purpose is to conduct electricity, not just to function as a structural member. Busbars improves systematic capacitance, lower inductance and impedance. Commercially, the present practice is to use different busbars for different current ratings. The main reason for this is the variation in temperature and the entire busbar system has to be replaced depending on the required current rating. This is a time consuming and expensive practice. To prevent the above difficulties in the present work a busbar with fins, which can be used for varying current ratings, is proposed. The proposal is done by thermal analysis of the busbar and the theoretical and simulation results are compared. There is the analysis is carried out by simulation using Star CCM+. The temperature distribution with and without fins are evaluated and number of fin is fixed for the required heat dissipation of the busbar.
Keywords: ‐ Busbar, Conductor, casing, Insulator, Fin.
Method: ‐ Steady state and unidirectional method,StarCCM+.
47. EYE STATE PREDICTION USING EEG BY SUPERVISED LEARNING
Authors- NEHA JAIN, SANDEEP BHARGAVA, SAVITA SHIVANI, DINESH GOYAL
Abstract- EEG (electroencephalogram)  It is a representative signal containing information about the state of the brain. This paper (and open eyes closed resting state), the eyes of the state of continuous EEG measurement data of an experiment with different learning algorithms. By studying the quality of this information assumes the eyes of the machine learning algorithms to learn. EEG 14 electrodes used in the activation of the power of a data set. In this manner, Corpus 45 special training in machine learning algorithms to predict the state of the eye is examined for the analysis of their performance. Three new algorithms Linear SVM, SVM polynomial, SVM RBF is tested. We did not select the standard features fourteen electrodes information. We have to get out and do the best results from this strategy. This process results in the K‐Star with 97.3, but it more than took 2 hours. So it took only 23 minutes and 26 seconds it took using the HPC.
Index terms: EEG, SVM, Feature selection, HPC
48. DISPERSION COMPENSATION AND AMPLIFICATION USING PRE, POST AND SYMMETRICAL TECHNIQUES
Authors- VIKRAM SINGH, RAMESH BHARTI
Abstract- Dispersion compensation and Power Amplification are essential parameters in a Optical communication system. The proposed model shows Dispersion compensation and Power Amplification. In this Optical Communication model consists of single‐mode fiber of 20 km length, whose dispersion is compensate using pre, post and symmetrical techniques using dispersion compensating filter (DCF). Power amplification and Performance of these three pre, post and symmetric techniques are compared. The proposed Contact dispersion model shows DCF Using fiber Bragg Grating with erbium doped Fiber amplifier. FBG is set at 193.1 THz frequency (near to 1550 nm Bragg Wavelength). At input side the bit sequence generator, Gaussian pulse generator and Mech‐Zehnder modulator (MZM) is used. The power is measured by Optical power Meter (OPM) and Dispersion is visualized by optical time domain visualizer (OTDV). Loss of dispersion is successfully approximately 20% using symmetrical technique and 7% using Post technique. The power amplification also to achieve using Pre, Post and symmetrical technique in single mode fiber. The symmetrical technique gives better result as compared to both pre and post technique.
49. A FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER BASED CURRENT COMPENSATION DEVICE FOR GRID‐TIED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH FLUCTUATED CONDITIONS
Authors- P. SARATH, M. PRASAD
Abstract- This paper introduces an advanced current control strategy for grid‐connected operations of distributed generation (DG), which supports the DG to transfer a sinusoidal current into the utility grid despite the distorted grid voltage and non‐linear local load conditions. The proposed current controller is designed in the synchronous reference frame and composed of a proportional–integral (PI) controller and a repetitive controller (RC). An RC serves as a bank of resonant controllers, which can compensate a large number of harmonic components with a simple delay function. Hence, the control strategy can be greatly simplified. In addition, the proposed control method does not require the local load current measurement or harmonic analysis of the grid voltage. Therefore, the proposed control method can be easily adopted into the traditional DG control system without installation of extra hardware. Despite the reduced number of sensors, the grid current quality is significantly improved compared with the traditional methods with the PI controller. The operation principle of the proposed control method is analyzed in detail, and its effectiveness is validated through simulated and experimental results.
Index Terms: Distributed generation (DG), grid‐connected inverter, harmonic compensation, nonlinear load, repetitive control.
50. DATA HIDING IN VIDEO STREAM BY TEXT SUBSTITUTION
Authors- Miss Amruta B. Bhojane, Prof. Priti A. Khodke
Abstract- Information security is becoming important concern in today’s world because of widespread use of internet as a communication channel. We generally need to communicate data in the form of text, image, audio or video. This information is mostly communicated through the network. But in a network, data is not secure, it can get eavesdrop. To protect transfer of sensitive data in network from a third person steganography techniques can be used. There are different steganography techniques such as image, audio, video, text, network steganography. Steganography means hiding secret data inside a cover medium such that no one other than the sender and intended recipient suspect the existence of secret data. In this paper we explain video steganography. Our proposed approach is data hiding in video stream by text substitution, it is divided into two parts data embedding and data extraction. To hide text data file inside frames of video we propose higher least significant bit algorithm. And to provide more security to the stego video proposed pixel swapping encryption technique, which is use to encrypt stego video. For data hiding inside frame, first divide single frame into four carrier images and hide data into five LSB bits of each pixel of a carrier image, which satisfy quantization error condition and leave other pixel as it is. Key generated while hiding data is store into last pixel of carrier image. Data hiding key and encryption key are used to preserve privacy. Our proposed approach tries to improve payload capacity and provide more security to the stego video.
Index Terms: Steganography, higher LSB algorithm, stego video, cover video, encryption
51. LAND USE/LAND CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS AND SOIL CONSERVATION IN PRECAMBRIAN TERRAIN OF CHAMARAJANAGARA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA USING GEOMATICS APPLICATION
Authors- BASAVARAJAPPA H.T, PUSHPAVATHI K.N, MANJUNATHA M.C
Abstract- Land and soil management in developing countries like India is very much necessary in better monitoring for future sustainable resources. These resources are over stretched and undergoing degradation at an unacceptable rate due to rapid increase in population. Land use refers to mans activities & various uses which are carried on land; while land cover refers to natural vegetation such as water bodies, rock/soil, artificial cover and other resulting due to land transformations. Although land use is generally inferred based on the cover, yet both are closely related and interchangeable. Soil is a natural body developed by natural forces acting of natural materials. Soil is the loose and weathered rock material that covers the land surface of the earth and supports the growth of vegetation. The present aim is an attempt to classify the land use/land cover (LU/LC) and conserve the fertile upper layers of the study area. Geo‐coded FCC of IRS‐1D, PAN+LISS‐III satellite image and merged SoI toposheets of 1:50,000 scale are well utilized to digitize the soil map. The final results highlight the Geomatics applications in mapping, management and monitoring of land and soil resources on hard rock terrain in Southern tip of Karnataka.
Index Terms: LU/LC Classification, Conservation of Soils, Chamarajanagar and Geomatics.
52. INVESTIGATION OF CRACK PROPAGATION IN COMPACT TENSION SPECIMEN USING ZERO THICKNESS COHESIVE ELEMENTS
Authors- GANESH. I. KULKARNI, MANJUNATH HEGDE, Dr. KIRTHAN L. J
Abstract- This research work demonstrates the crack propagation analysis with the concept of Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) and by using zero thickness cohesive elements in the region of crack. For current research a Compact Tension Specimen (CTS) as per ASTM standard of material EN‐31 steel is developed and it is assigned with the material properties, zero thickness cohesive elements and boundary conditions in Abaqus. The results obtained were compared with the experimental and J‐integral values taken from literature review; it is found that critical crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) result from experimental is found to be 0.808mm and by J‐integral approach is found to be 0.7604mm which is 7% less than the experimental value and for CZM it found to be 0.778mm which is 4% less than experimental value. Thus CZM is appropriate to use for determining the critical CTOD and also the crack simulation data can be matched with the experimental data.
Index Terms: CZM, crack propagation, CTOD, zero thickness cohesive elements, Abaqus.
53. DEFLUORIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER USING EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES
Authors- TEJ PRATAP SINGH, JATIN BHATNAGAR, C.B.MAJUMDER
Abstract- In this study we used common aquatic living plant Eichhornia crassipes to check out its effect on removal of fluoride from industrial wastewater. These plants were grown in plant growth chamber and were studied for 10‐15 days provided with different pH and different concentration of fluoride. It was found that removal efficiency of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is 58.894% in the present study. When pH of the solution is varied i.e. either increased or decreased we observed that there is a deficiency in removal of fluoride. It does also shows degradation in biomass due to fluoride presence. Accumulation was found maximum in roots then stems then leaves. Total accumulation was 1899.422 for fluoride concentration of 20 mg/L.
Keywords: Plant Growth Chamber; Eichhornia crassipes; removal efficiency; Defluoridation
54. DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENCE TIME FOR PACKED BED COLUMN REACTOR USING A PACKING OF BIO‐ADSORBENT (JAVA PLUM SEED)
Authors- TEJ PRATAP SINGH, JATIN BHATNAGAR, C.B.MAJUMDER
Abstract- Water is one of the greatest essences in today’s world. Treatment of waste water could solve a lot of problems faced by modern world. Motive of this study is to treat industrial waste water by the means of RTD which is a completely experimental method. In a packed bed bioreactor response of RTD experiments were carried out. We determined residence time of liquid and solid from residence time distribution (RTD) measurements using tracers. The final pore volume (void space) of the reactor with java plum core/seed packed bed reactor was between 1300‐1400 ml. The observed values for Experimental mean Residence Time for step change is 12.564 minutes while Dispersion number was found to be 0.0451 and Peclet no. is 22.167 where as σ2 is found to be 242.1136 and σ2θ is 0.1065.
Keywords: Residence Time Distribution (RTD), Packed Bed Reactor, Tracer Testing, Processes, Step response, Distribution function.
55. IMAGE SEGMENTATION USING WATERSHED AND GRADIENT VECTOR FOR MULTIPLE OBJECTS
Authors- ESHA CHAUHAN, ANOOP SINGHAL
Abstract- This paper describes a novel method for partitioning image into meaningful segments within a given time. The proposed method employs a step wise approach which uses gradient vector method for determining the boundary, a threshold which after getting the boundary neutralizes the values to make the image consistent enough so that the watershed segmentation technique can segmentize the image with proper and fine boundary definitions. Along with that, it uses various auxiliary schemes such as gray scale conversion, average threshold method, which segment the image in proper way but with some distortion around the boundary. The algorithm proposed in this paper considers all these methods in effective way and takes little time. It is organized in such a manner so that it operates on input image adaptively. Its robustness and efficiency makes it more convenient and suitable for all types of images.
Index Terms‐ Image Segmentation, vector gradient, watershed, threshold
56. BANDWIDTH OPTIMISATION USING CACHING TECHNIQUES FOR PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT IN A SYSTEM
Authors- ASHOK KUMAR TRIPATHI , RAMESH BHARTI
Abstract- A Web cache is a mechanism for the temporary storage (caching) of web documents, such as HTML pages and images, to reduce bandwidth usage, server load, and perceived lag. A web cache stores copies of documents passing through it; subsequent requests may be satisfied from the cache if certain conditions are met. The World Wide Web suffers from scaling and reliability problems due to overloaded and congested proxy servers. Caching at local proxy serves help, but cannot satisfy more than a third to half of requests; more requests are still sent to original remote servers. This paper as case study discusses and analysed several web caching schemes and to optimised the network of organisation for bandwidth enhancement. Clustering improves the retrieval latency and also helps to provide load balancing in distributed environment. But this cannot ensure the scalability issues, easy handling of frequent disconnections of proxy servers and metadata management issues in the network.
Keywords: Web caching, Metadata Server(WCMS), Distributed Web Caching, Clustering, Latency(DWCCL), Robustness, Scalability, Disconnection Handling, Proxy server, clients.
57. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF GARDEN CRESS SEED BISCUITS
Authors- DEVENDRASING D. PATIL, Er. ADITYA LAL, VINOD D. NANDKULE
Abstract- The garden cress seed biscuit is prepared by the using of the garden cress seed. Garden cress seed are having a medicinal properties and health benefits to the human body. Garden cress seed rich source of protein, iron, minerals and it protect much deficiency disease like anemia. Medicinal and nutritional importance of garden cress seed was the most important aspect of this study. Studies were conducted on incorporation of garden cress seed powder (Lepidium sativum) in biscuit. These used garden cress seed as 05, 10, 15 and 20% level to prepare garden cress seed were analyzed for physical analysis diameter, thickness, spared ratio, volume and density (4.6, 0.8, 5.7,13.26,0.7) respectively chemical analysis protein, fat, moisture, ash, (6.25, 17.46, 1.98, 2.74, g/1OOg) respectively On the basis of overall sensory attributes, colour of sample 100: 10% has better appearance as compare to 100:05 % and 100: 15%. Flavour, Aroma, Taste, After Taste and Overall Acceptability of sample 100: 10% has got higher score than sample 100:05% and 100:15% because of dark browning colour of garden cress seed biscuits. After chemical analysis it was found that sample 100: 15% had high percentage of protein and other nutrients it was concluded that on the basis of sensory evaluation garden cress seed can be substituted up to 10% in wheat flour to prepare garden cress seed without adversely affecting quality attributes.
Index Terms: Nutritional, Garden cress seed, Quality evaluation, Minerals, Medicinal
58. ENHANCEMENT OF AUTOMATIC REGION INCREMENTING VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
Author- JAYA AGRAWAL
Abstract- For n level region incrementing visual cryptography scheme, image is divided in n regions. Each region consists of one level information. For implementing vc in n levels we need to encode (n+1) shares in such a way so that any single share is not able to show the information and by combining any two shares, first level information would be visible. In similar way, for revealing whole information all the (n+1) shares are superimposed. In proposed scheme, levels are created automatically. User needs only to use a particular level information with a particular size of text and it is modified to generate the levels automatically which is named as automatic region incrementing visual cryptography.
Keywords—Secret Sharing, Levels, VC(visual cryptography)
59. SIMULTANEOUS DENSITOMETRIC QUANTITATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS P‐METHOXYBENZOIC ACID, 3, 4‐DIMETHOXYCINNAMIC ACID, ECDYSTERONE AND STIGMSTEROL IN THE EXTRACT OF TRIANTHEMA PORTULACASTRUM LINN. AND ITS MARKETED POLYHERBAL FORMULATION USING HPTLC
Authors- VIKAS V. VAIDYA, JAYDEEP N. GADGIL, MAHARUDRA B. KEKARE, SAURABH H. PATIL
Abstract- Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. belonging to the family aizoaceae is abundantly available weed which has enormous traditional uses due to different bioactive compounds present and thus used in different herbal formulations. Current research paper describes a developed and validated High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method (HPTLC) for simultaneous quantitation of four bioactive compounds i.e. p‐methoxybenzoic acid, 3,4‐dimethoxycinnamic acid, Ecdysterone and Stigmasterol from whole plant. The analytes were separated on TLC plates coated with silica gel 60 F254 with Chloroform : Ethyl acetate : toluene : Methanol (4 : 2.5 : 2: 1.5 v/v) as a mobile phase after chamber saturation of 10 min. The development distance was 80mm. Sterols were derivatized using 1% Anisuldehyde‐Sulphuric acid reagent. Detection and quantitation were performed by densitometry using deuterium lamp before derivatization at 254nm and after derivatization at 580nm using tungsten. The validated method was applied for quantitation of the four bioactive components in a marketed formulation containing plant extract. A precise, accurate and robust HPTLC method is developed for simultaneous quantitation of four bioactive components which can be used as a quality control tool in standardization of raw materials and marketed herbal formulations.
Keywords: HPTLC, Simulteneous quantitation, p‐methoxybenzoic acid, 3,4‐dimethoxycinnamic acid, Ecdysterone, Stigmsterol
60. DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF HIGH SPEED OPTICAL LOGIC GATES USING SOADESIGN & ANALYSIS OF HIGH SPEED OPTICAL LOGIC GATES USING SOA
Authors- PRITI SHARMA, NIDHISH TIWARI
Abstract- Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are very attractive nonlinear elements for the realization of different logic functions, since they can exhibit a strong change of the refractive index together with high gain. In this paper, a principle of operation, simulation step and experimental result of different all‐optical logic gates (AND Gate, OR Gate, XOR Gate) are well presented. These gates are based on the nonlinearities on SOAs. The experimental results were exactly matched with standard results and increasing the speed of optical logic gates. All‐optical logic gates became key elements in the realization of node functionalities, as add drop multiplexing, packet synchronization, clock recovery, address recognition, and signal processing. Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are very attractive nonlinear elements for the realization of different logic functions, since they can exhibit a strong change of the refractive index together with high gain. Moreover, different form of fibre devices SOAs allow photonic integration. The nonlinear behaviour that is a drawback for the SOAs as a linear amplifier makes it a good choice for an optically controlled optical gate.
Keywords: Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOAs) Mach‐Zehnder interferometer (MZI); Optisystem
61. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF DEVELOPED BREAD BY USING GINGER AND TURMERIC
Authors- RASHMI SINGH, R.N. SHUKLA, A.A. MISHRA
Abstract- The present study was conducted on Development Quality Evaluation of Developed Bread by using Ginger & Turmeric in Developed bread and its shelf life studies. The quality of developed breads was determined on the basis of physico‐chemical analysis namely moisture content, Ash content, Ph content. Microbial analysis namely Yeast/Mold count, coliform count and Standard plate count and Sensory analysis including sensory attributes namely color, flavor, texture taste over all acceptability was done. The moisture content of bread was found to be decreased with different in proportion of ginger & turmeric. Ash content found maximum in 3% turmeric incorporated bread sample i.e. (0.92%)c. It was found that during microbial analysis colony count of bread increases as increases in the storage time of bread at room temp.The mean overall sensory acceptability scores of more than 7.9 for bread samples upto 3% turmeric indicated the commercial scope for manufacturing good quality developed bread with ginger & turmeric which will also be helpful to the patients those are suffering from heart diseases, diabetes and stomach disorder. Developed bread is good for health benefit point of view for all age group. The yeast/mold count and SPC showed 10, 10 and 30 colonies respectively after 24h at room temperature and studies were conducted for bread samples to study the shelf life of bread and also to determine the frequency of distribution
with in standard limits in initial, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h.
Keywords: Ginger, turmeric, Quality evaluation, bread.
62. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF JAMUN POWDER FORTIFIED BISCUITS USING NATURAL SWEETNERS
Authors- PRIYANKA, A.A. MISHRA
Abstract- The jamun seed powder fortified biscuits. The waste utilization of jamun was the most important aspect of this study. Studies were conducted on incorporation of jamun seed powder fortified biscuit. Jamun Seed powder was incorporated with wheat flour or (Maida) in different proportions having following ratios(100:0, 97.5:2.5, 95:5, 92.5:7.5, 90:10).Physico‐chemical and sensory parameters of control, Jamun Seed powder Incorporated biscuits were analysed after baking. During shelf life study it was observed that moisture content of control and treatment show slight increase or decrease from zero to 15 days but after 30, 45 and 60 days there was an increase in moisture content of control. Protein content in experimental samples was also found maximum 8.00% in (T4). Fat content was maximum 23.17 % in ( T4) and in storage period of 15, 30, 45 and 60 days there was a slight decrease. Ash content in experimental sample was found minimum 1.19 % in control sample (T0) and maximum 2.40 % in (T4).Fibre content in experimental sample was found minimum 1.42% in control sample (T0) and maximum 2.30 % in (T4) sample. Among six treatments i.e.,( 100:0, 97.5:2.5, 95:5, 92.5:7.5, 90:10 ) depending upon different sensory attributes like color, taste, texture and overall acceptability during shelf life study, Sample T1 was found satisfactory to store for a period of up to 60 days. So, apart from that Jamun Seed powder can be recommended to the patients those are suffering from, Diabetics diseases and other problem.
Keywords: Fortification, jamun powder,stevia, Quality evaluation, Waste utilization
63. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF JACKFRUIT SEED AND SOY FLOUR NOODLES
Authors- VINOD D. NANDKULE, DORCUS MASIH, CHITRA SONKAR, DEVENDRASING D. PATIL
Abstract- Study was conducted to develop Jackfruit Seed and soy flour noodle. Different levels of refined wheat flour, jackfruit seed flour and soy flour were added in the ratio of 100:00:00, 90:5:5, 80:10:10, 70:15:15, 60:20:20, 70:10:20 and 70:20:10 for the development of noodles and its quality were analyzed. The results of study indicated that samples of jackfruit and soy flour had added noodles, for all addition levels contained more protein, fat, fibre and ash as compared to control sample. The noodles developed with addition of jackfruit and soy flour noodle had desirable organoleptic properties as indicated by the taste panel studies. However, based on sensory analysis noodles with (T1) 90:5:5 refined wheat flour, jackfruit seed flour and soy flour were found more acceptable than other levels and optimum for incorporation in refined wheat flour noodles for development of enriched noodles. Noodles was packed in LDPE and stored at room temperature. The storage studies were conducted at the interval of 0‐60 days. Protein, fat, crude fibre, was decreased during storage period.
Key words: Jackfruit seed flour, Soy flour, Noodles, Refined wheat flour, Sensory analysis.
64. PRETREATMENT & MICROWAVE DRYING ON QUALITY OF SPINACH POWDER DURING STORAGE
Authors- SAMIA SADIQ, A.A. MISHRA
Abstract- The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of control sample ( unblanched) spinach leaves and hot water blanched sample on shelf –life of spinach powder and to evaluate the effect of water blanched treatments, chemical composition such as moisture content, fat content and ash content were carried out. Sensory analysis of color and aroma were carried out according to 9 point hedonic scale. To evaluate the shelf – life of spinach powder packed in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Poly Propylene (PP) packaging materials, Total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mould counts were carried out. The results showed that unblanched sample was more favorite .PP excelled than HDPE and LDPE as a packaging material to store spinach powder for a long period of time. According to sensory score, hot water blanched sample was more favorite by the panelist than unblanched sample. With increase in storage period TPC and yeast & mould increased but hot water blanched sample showed less growth of TPC and yeast & mould when compared to unblanched sample. PP showed less microbial count than the HDPE and LDPE , so it is most suitable for spinach powder packaging for a long period of time.
Keywords: Spinacia oleracea; spinach; dehydration; powder; characterization.
65. OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETER FOR THE PRODUCTION OF VINEGAR FROM BANANA PEEL AND COCONUT WATER
Authors- BENAZIR FATIMA, A.A. MISHRA
Abstract- Vinegar fermentation was essentially a two‐step process comprising the anaerobic conversion of sugars to ethanol (C2H5OH) and the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid (CH3CO2H). It was to be found that vinegar could be successfully produced from the juice extracted from banana peel and coconut water using yeast and Acetobacter. Banana peel and coconut water was a suitable raw material for ethanol production by fermentation and for vinegar production by this ethanol. The present study indicates that a relatively good yield of ethanol and acetic acid can be obtained after optimization of conditions for fermentation. For Banana peel Alcohol, the highest alcohol level was 7.77% at 10% sugar level, 8% yeast cell concentration for 48 hrs. at 28ºC. For Banana peel Vinegar, the maximum acidity was obtained 4.67 % at 7.77% of alcohol level, 15% of A. aceti cell concentration for 12 week at 37 ºC.For coconut water, the highest alcohol level was 5.60% at 12%sugar level, 10%yeast cell concentration for 48hrs.at 28ºC.For coconut water vinegar, the maximum acidity was obtained 6.00% at 5.60% of alcohol level,15%of A.aceticell concentration for 12 week at 37ºC.chemical analysis pH,titrable acidity,protein,ash,phosphorus,mallic acid(2.50,0.28,19.63,2.53)for coconut water vinegar and for banana peel vinegar(2.98.0.093,9.75,0.60) respectively on the basis of overall sensory attributes, colour of sample 100:15% has better appearance as compare to 100:10% and 100:5%. Flavor, Aroma, Taste, After Taste and Overall Acceptability of sample 100:15% has got higher score than sample 100:5% and 100:10% because of dark yellow color of coconut water vinegar and brown colour of banana peel vinegar. After chemical analysis it was found that sample 100:15% had high percentage of protein and other nutrients it was concluded that banana peel and coconut water alcohol with 5%,10%,15% A.Aceti inoculates were used for the production of vinegar without adversely affecting quality attributes.
Keywords: Fermentation, Ethanol, vinegar, Acetobacter aceti, quality evaluation, waste utilization
66. OPTIMIZATION OF CURRENT MODE LOGIC CIRCUITS OSCILLATOR USING CURRENT DIFFERENCING BUFFER AMPLIFIER
Authors- MONIKA CHOUDHARY, SHARAVAN BISHNOI, NIDHISH TIWARI
Abstract- A new improved CMOS configuration of CDBA is presented providing low input impedances at ports p and n, very high output impedance at port z, a good linearity and high input/output gain ratio for current transfer. The offered CDBA contains only MOS transistors and is designed to be implemented in CMOS technology. To demonstrate the performance of the CDBA circuit, a first order all‐pass filter was chosen. The next sections include the PSPICE simulations filter characteristics and the oscillator characteristic. The simulations show that the proposed CDBA circuit exhibits a very good performance and the results obtained for the filter are in good agreement with theory.
Index Terms‐ CMOS, CDBA.
67. ORTHOGONAL CRYPTOGRAPHY FOR SECURE DATA TRANSMISSION
Authors- ROOPAM HARSH, NIDHISH TIWARI
Abstract- It becomes very important when it comes to the data transmission over a channel, as the major issues are associated with it. One of the biggest challanges is to make the system more secure and it should be able to detect the errors as well. In this thesis the concept of orthogonal encoding has been adopted to reduce the security threats and it also enables the system to detect the errors. For the fast communication the system has been enabled with a SIPO and a PISO pair as well.
Index Terms—Orthogonal, sipo, piso, security.
68. DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF MILK WHEY BLENDED SUGARCANE JUICE AND ITS PHYSICO‐CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
Authors- PRASHANT T DAMANE, CHITRA SONKAR, ROSHAN DARADE
Abstract- The present study was carried out to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the milk whey blended sugarcane juice using chemical preservatives. Milk whey, ginger juice and lemon juice were added at different proportion ranges 15‐60,0.5‐0.7 and 2.5‐3.0 respectively in the 100ml of sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice was prepared by pasteurizing e at 70ᴼC for 10 minutes and adding KMS 225 ppm as preservatives. Blended sugar cane juice was optimised on the basis of sensory analysis. It was found that sample T5 (35:2.75:0.6) was best as compared to other samples. Physico‐chemical analysis of sample T5 was carried out and it was found that the nutritional value was more as compared to the control sample T0. Microbial analysis (Total Plate Count and Yeast mould count) of sample T5, T7 and T9 was carried out from 0days to 55days, and shows the growth of microbial activity was increased. Sample T5 shows satisfactory storage life. The lemon and ginger were able to lower the pH of sugarcane juice to 4.1 which gave a preservative action and inhibit the growth of microorganisms during storage.
Keywords: Milk whey, Sugarcane juice, Shelf life
69. EFFECT OF FILLER CONCENTRATION ON PROPERTIES OF GRAPHITE COMPOSITE BIPOLAR PLATE
Authors- MOHAMMED A. M., EL‐NAFATY U. A., BUGAJE I. M. MUKTHAR B.
Abstract- Fuel Cell as an alternative energy device is expensive due to high cost of production of its components. In this research, a bipolar plate, which is a component of a fuel cell, is fabricated using indigenous raw material (graphite). The plate was produced using epoxy resin as the material matrix and graphite as the filler. In order to produce bipolar plate with best characteristics, eight different formulations (55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90% filler concentration) were tested and the plates were produced using compression moulding at 1500C and 100kN. The plates were characterized for electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and flexural strength. ASTM D3039 and D790 were used for tensile and flexural strength test respectively. Electrical conductivity was determined using Van der Pauw technique and the values were found to be 104.35 S/cm and 107.78 S/cm in 85% and 90% filler concentration plates, which is above US‐DOE target. Tensile strength and flexural strength shows varying results due to either increase in elasticity or brittleness with respect to increasing filler concentration. However, the values for tensile and flexural strength were found to be 15.64 and 54.70MPa respectively at 70% filler concentration’s plate. This is also above the target set by US‐DOE in 2012. Therefore, 70/30 wt% graphite/epoxy resin formulation was recommended as the appropriate since its plate has all the mechanical properties above the US‐DOE target.
Index Terms: Bipolar Plate, Binder, Composite, Epoxy resin, Filler, Fuel cell, Graphite.
70. V-PARAMETER OF PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER
Author- CHHAVI SHARMA
Abstract- We propose a kind of novel photonic crystal fibers based on a fiber core with arrays of sub wavelength circular air holes, achieving number of guided modes in PCF. Numerical expression of v-parameter depends on the two parameters which are air hole diameter and hole to hole spacing. By studying the number of guided modes for fibers and use of an effective index model, gives information about the monomode operations. The aim of the work is to provide that how the parameter space for these fibers is restricted in order for the fiber to remain single mode.
Keywords: v parameter, cladding index, effective core radius, photonic crystal fiber
71. ATTRITION ISSUES AND TALENT RETENTION IN INDIAN BPOs
Authors- VIPIN KUMAR TOMER, Dr. R.P SINGH
Abstract- The broad objective of this research is to identify the root causes of attrition and retention in BPOs, analyzing the level of employee motivation, satisfaction and involvement, generate a model for maximizing sustenance of employees in the organization and come up with concrete recommendations, which will eventually be valuable to the organizations to retain their employees for a long term.
72. Monitoring and Assessment of Heavy Metals in Pulses & Cereals
Authors- Jitender Pal, Priyanka
Abstract- The aim of present study is to monitor and assessment the levels of heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr) in pulses [Massor (Lens culinaris), Chana (Chickpea), Urad (Vigna mungo), Arhar (Cajanus cajan), Moong (Vigna rodiata)] and cereals [Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Rice (Oryza sativa)] sold in three cities (Hisar, Rewari and Rohtak) of Haryana. The maximum concentration of Zn (75.48mg/kg) was found in all pulses and cereals at Hisar city and minimum concentrations of Cr were noticed in all selected pulses and cereals. The daily intakes of Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr through pulses and cereals have also been estimated. The higher value of ADD (mg/kg/person/day) for adults in Zn for consumption is 0.0595 in massor in Rohtak city. They are found to be below the reference dose and safe limits proposed by [FAO/WHO]. The hazard quotient of all the metals is less than one in all the pulses and cereal samples of all the selected locations and may not constitute any health hazards by consumption of pulses and cereals.
Key words: Heavy metals, Daily intake, Cereals and Pulses, Food